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What is this called: the ext. of fire, via the exterior of the building, from a fire originating in the same building?

Auto exposure
PS this is a urgent message


2 enclosed stairs separated by rated walls contained in a single stair shaft. May be installed in MD's rather than requiring stairs to be remote and are 2 separate exits. What type of stair?

Scissor Stairs
PS the exit doors are placed no less than 15' apart in the public hallway. Sometimes open directly into apts.


What type of construction are OLT's?

Class 3, non-fireproof
Brick walls, wood floor beams and wood floors


Where is the stairway to the cellar located in OLT's?

Located in the building usually beneath the interior stairway.
PS NLT's it is by way of exterior stairs


OLT building has 4 windows per fl. and no front F.E. usually indicates?

Railroad flats with a rear F.E.
Exception corner buildings


OLT building has 4 windows per fl. and a front F.E it usually indicates?

3 to 4 apts per floor and a rear F.E.


What is the ever dangerous type of OLT?

OLT railroad flats whose secondary means of egress is a front F.E.


NLT's the 1st fl. cellar ceiling is made of ?

fireproof construction and unpierced


NLT's. The interior stairs are ______ and enclosed in partitions of fireproof construction. Apt doors are constructed of ______.

fire resistant materials.


*NLT's 1916-1929. To avoid being built of fireproof construction are broken up into areas of _____ sq ft. or less.

2500 (after 1929 broken into 3000 sq ft)
*PS there is a DIVIDING wall that only goes as high as the ceiling of the top floor before 1929. Large cockloft.


NLT's 1916-1929. Unprotected ______ beams are used to support some of the floor joists. These ____ ____ are supported by vertical steel columns which run the height of the building.

steel beams
steel beams.


NLT's 1916-1929 do they have dumbwaiters?

Yes they are located in the apts.
Most cases 2 apts share 1 dumbwaiter.


Before 30's?

before 30's- ceiling of the top fl
30's - underside of roof boards
40's- top of roof boards


NLT's. How do u access the basement?

Entrance to basement by side or rear door at that level accessed via ext. stair from 1st fl. or through a passage way located in the front of the building.


Scissor stairs in the smaller 4 to 6 story fireproof buildings usually have ___ fireproof stairway which may be ____ or ____ and runs from _____ to _____.

1st fl to roof
PS minimum 15ft apart


What is the exception for stretching the 1st line into the building?

FLAME issuing from the windows onto the F.E. Then the 2nd line would go inside.


T/F All assigned engines and squads shall locate, test and confirm a positive water source?

only squads assigned as engines.
(it does not say hook up)


When would u use a line on a roof?

Prevent fire from extending past trench.
Protect exposures.
Ext fire that can not be reached from below. ex cornice


What is the main purpose of stretching the 1st line into the building?

Safe guard the stairway so it can be used by escaping occupants.


Where does the 2nd line go in a MD fire?

To the fire floor as a back up if not needed go above.
PS 3rd line use F.E. or rope stretch especially on OLT's


Who carries the K tool?

Ladder officer or forcible entry FF


In MD's, Who controls horizontal vent?

The ladder Officer operating in the FIRE AREA.


Window should be opened ____ from the top and opened ____ from the bottom.

2/3 top
1/3 bottom


No material from windows shall be thrown into?

set backs
narrow shafts
enclosed shafts


Fire in a OLT and a NLT with fire on 2 floors: How many extra units?

extra engine
extra truck
PS if progress is not made in a short period of time transmit a 2nd alarm.


If fire is in the shaft and it extends into a exposure, What does that become? How about it extends into 2 exposures?

1 exposure is 2nd alarm
2 exposures is a 3rd alarm


Who must make known to the IC and other FF the manner in which the floors and apartments are layed out either numbers or letters?

The first Officer


Piping containing flammable gas shall not be in stair enclosures or in shafts with a standpipe riser or public hallways leading to exits? What is done if this is found?

High Priority Referral


What do we do if gas meters are burning?

Let them keep burning. Wet down near by combustibles. Shut down the gas.


IF gas leak did not ignite, What do u do?

Shut off gas. Use fog line. Leak can be greatly stopped with stuffing rags, paper etc into the break.
PS do not do this for high pressure plastic pipes.


T/F Members must be warned if a outside stream is going to be used into a building?
MD 3.5.10 F

Except in extreme, lifesaving instances members must be warned and moved to a safe location before outside steams are directed into building. safe area verified by HT or person with IC.


OLT cellar fire. Where does the 1st line go?

1st fl to protect the stairs


OLT cellar fire. The 1st line will not down the interior cellar stairs unless? 2 things
MD 4.2.1 test point

no outside entrance to cellar at the front or rear of building.
fire is minor.


OLT. Horizontal and vertical vent is controlled by Who?

Horizontal vent by Ladder Officer in area to be vented.
Initial vertical vent by ladder officer


OLT store fire u should stretch a _____. The 2nd line goes where?

2 1/2
2nd line to entrance hallway. When assured the 2nd line is not needed on the 1st fl it may be advanced to the floor above.
PS not a back up line ?


What must be in place before the store is vented?

charged hoseline.
especially plate glass windows


In OLT store fires, What must be examined immediately?

1st fl public hallway


How do we attack a stairway fire?
PS vent roof extremely important

1st stretched up stairway operated to ext. shut down and further advanced. operate up well to cool hall and stairs. Repeat until all the way to the top. 2nd line finish ext ops and serve as protection. Apts checked.


Weakened,damaged or burnt out stairs the preferred ladder to use to reach upper parts of a building is _____?



Air, light and dumbwaiter shaft fires a line should be stretched to the ______ from which water can be directed onto the shaft. Sufficient hose must be stretched to reach ________.

upper fls. of building
PS the base of a shaft maybe the roof of a building or ceiling of a cellar.


For fire in rooms in the vicinity of a shaft after the fire in the room has been ______, the line operated into the shaft to ______ the shaft fire before continuing through apt for knockdown and extinguishment.

PS no more control and extinguished is wring answer


When a cornice is involved in heavy fire does the cornice give way in 1 piece or in parts?

Either one. It can fail in pieces or as a whole.


Buildings in the rear usually NOT exposed there is a gap of
____ to _____ or more from the OLT

10 to 25 ft.
Be mindful heavy fire in the REAR, windows in the exposed building are open and wind blowing toward the exposed building.


SRO's. Rooms MUST have access to stairs ____ fire escape without going through another person's room.

U need both


SRO's. Where do u need sprinklers?

Each room and Stairway
( it says nothing about hallway)


SRO's. Do they have a roof tank?
Can the system be supplied by FD?

No roof tank.
Can not be supplied by FD.
Is supplied by city main.


Are SRO's required to have an interior alarm?

Exit lights and signs must be provided


*Rear tenements are small in area may be _____ or ______
construction and range from ____ to ___ stories.

frame or non- fireproof ( a lot are frame)
2 to 5 stories


How do u get portables to rear tenements buildings.

Carried through the hallway of the front of the building.
May have to be raised utility rope up and over the front.


Is it ok to use ladders as a bridge between front and rear tenements.

emergency measures bridge front tenement to rear
roof for vent purposes or rescue.


In _____, the word tenement was no longer used and is now called _______.

apartment houses


H-Type exterior walls are masonry and generally brick. Interior partly or wholly of wood. Columns and girders are made of ________.

unprotected steel (BIG Difference?)


There are 3 structural elements that support the H-Type design?

Masonry bearing walls.
Wood beams that support the floors and roof.
Columns, beams and girders that connect and support.
PS older buildings have just wood and masonry.


Steel when heated it _____.

expands and substantially elongates.
High temps may cause it to fail.


Steels columns are vertical designed in a H type they are also known as ______.
Steel girders are horizontal designed in an "I" shape they are also known as _____.

channel rails.
I- beams.


H-Type. The most common roof has the top fl. ceiling ______ ft below the main roof beams.

several ft
(inverted not most common)
Spongy is bad. Springy is good.


*What type of stairs are usually located at points remote from each other but a person can go from one stair to the other via public hallway on all floors?

PS a tremendous asset in heavy fire conditions on the top floor.


*What type of stairs 1 or 2 are located at the front and rear of each wing.

Wing stairs
PS the public hall does not transverse to the other wing of the "H"


*What type of stairs are usually ID by there individual entrances. Floor landings are recognized by there limited space and absence of a public hall?

Isolated Stairs


**Where do u find Channel Rails?

Often located in voids behind closets.
PS usually 1ft sq may be larger if waste pipes


**What is the main concern with channel rails?

Not fire stopped.
Voids can spread fire up or down.


**When fire is knocked down and u come across burned lath, what is the next step?

Check for the presence of these channel rails if present u must check locations above and below immediately


Who may come across the presence of pipe recesses?

Roof FF he might be able to line them up with the fire apt below.


If a waste pipe is hot to the touch, Who do u notify and what is the next step?

Officer and IC
Top FL examination immediately


The fire floor is also known as?

Fire Sector


The supervisor assigned to the fire sector is known as?

Fire Floor Sector Supervisor


The supervisor assigned to the floors above will be known as?

Floor Above Sector Supervisor


Who is responsible to get the 1st line in operation?

All available engine companies


What is the alternative from an engine point of view with a wrap around with an elevator?

Rope stretch from floor below the fire.


What type of truck should get the position of the throat in a H type?

If rescue ops are needed in the throat the aerial can carry out this function.


There is fire in the throat,courtyard and the front windows, where should the TL start?

Start in the throat then courtyard then front windows.


What is the primary means of getting to the roof in a
H type?

Winged or isolated stairs in the same building or adjoining if feasible.
PS if conditions indicate roof ops the aerial initially can be used for the roof man and ov.


In MD's for a medium fire condition who should be additionally called? (2 lines in operation)

1 engine and 1 truck beyond the full 1st alarm assignment.


In MD's 2 floors are involved or at extensive cockloft fire it will generally be necessary to transmit a?

2nd alarm


Store fires, where does the 2nd line go?

Back up the 1st. When it is obvious that the fire can be CONTROLLED the 2nd line can advance above.


What type of building has a peculiarity where it will skip intermediate areas both horizontally and vertically and will set fire when a obstruction is met?

Store fires
PS Areas larger than the store must be checked


In MD's cellar fires there is fireproof construction throughout the cellar, the cellar ceiling is concrete and rated for _____ hours?

2 hour fire resistance.
Ceilings in cellar and floors on the 1st fl must be checked because of wood sleepers on the top of the concrete used to nail floorboards.


Recommended coffin cut for md's? Taxpayers?



What must happen before u pull ceilings?

Charged hoseline must be in place.


Trenching is ______ operation and should not be pulled opened until _______?

Defensive ( ACRO TD)
adequate vent hole over the fire


How many inspection holes should there be on the fire side of the trench?

2 or more.
PS pull trench when fire reaches these inspection holes.


Trenches MUST be how wide?
PS keep all FF off the fire side of the trench

Look for a suitable fire stop look for the narrowest section. Do not depend on INTERIOR fire walls.


*Trench should be _____ ft from INITIAL VENT hole?

*PS absence of fire does not mean it did not extend past the cut. Smoke and gases might be coming from both ends.
Add. examination holes may have to be made PAST trench


When doing trenching, on larger buildings, it is good practice to?

Have 2 ladders raised to the roof at different ends of the building.


*Trenching. A charged line ______ be on the roof to protect FF's and the trench. How do u operate this line?

Side to Side motion


MD's the most probable point for vertical extension would be?

Vertical steel channels in buildings that have vertical steel construction. Closets also. These columns are located in the walls of these closets.


Fire enters a vertical void, What is the next step?

Top and bottom must be checked.


*T/F Always check walls in the vicinity of the bathroom for the large void enclosing the waste pipe.



*In MD's shafts behind bathrooms and kitchen have thicker partition walls which are inconstant with previous structures?



MD's. 2nd ladder has not arrived was does 1st ladder do?

order FF's directly above to feel the walls for hot spots including walls of closets. If hot spots make small holes if fire encountered notify IC and immediately go to top fl. and check termination point.


MD's. When are the 2 times u go directly to the top fl to check for fire extension?

Waste pipe hot to touch.
Fire in vertical void.


A fire escape on the throat often spans the firewall and indicates?

2 separate apts.
PS 1 apt in throat 2 interior exits


T/F Some buildings have a fire partition in the throat which does not completely extend to the rear wall.

u must check that they go completely to the front to rear.


How would u determine a sub dividing wall from the exterior in a NFP?

See if they are continued above the roof.


In HI-RI MD's what must be kept closed?

Evacuation stairs on the fire floor.


T/F HI-RI MD's. Prior to advancing to the fire floor u must always go to the floor below to gather info on the layout?

sometimes it will be 2 floors below if scissor stairs encountered.
PS scissor should be communicated HT to all units


T/F HI-RI. Prior to the designation of the evacuation stairs all FF must access the fire fl.from the same stairway.

attack stairway
Attack stairway door is the only door left open on the fire floor.


If scissor stairs are mislabeled who do u notify?

IC immediately
PS during BI verify stairways are labeled correctly it is a priority.


In HI-RI MD's who controls horizontal vent?
and who controls all other vent?

Ladder Officer for horizontal.
IC for all other vent.


What are most prominent variables for smoke movement?

Stack Effect
(PS- Stack Effect=Wind,Height,Leakage,Temp Differential)


Lower air pressure is especially created when?

open apt windows/doors on the OPPOSITE side of the public hallway from the fire apt.


What are the 4 things that influence Stack Effect?

Height of building
Air leakage
Temperature differential
( PS-Smoke movement affected by Pressure,Stack,Wind,HVAC)


Generally wind blowing across a roof level will cause a ______ pressure to be created Which can _____ positive stack effect inside the stairwell.

PS this is regardless of which side the wind is blowing and where the bulkhead is located.


Who confirms the HVAC is shutdown prior to commencing any fire operations.



HI-RI.MD's When is ventilation of smoke removal usually performed? MD's 6.3.1

After the main body of fire is CONTROLLED.
PS same rule applies to HI-RI Office
PS knock down and controlled are the same


HI-RI MD's. Who controls the ventilation of windows in public hallways and stairways?

Shall not be vented without approval of the IC.


HI-RI MD's. When there is only 2 staircases, which staircase will be the primary means of vertical vent? When during the operation will this happen?MD's 6.3.4

Attack gets vented.
This happens when the main body of fire is knocked down an authorized by the IC.
PS knockdown and controlled are the same thing


HI-RI MD's. Vertical Vent shall only be performed by ____ ?



HI-RI MD's. When there is no fireman service the elevator gets returned to the lobby ________ ?



We use the stairs in from which floor down?

We walk to the 7th floor or below.


HI-RI MD's. Who recalls the elevators?

1st ladder weather or not they are being used.
2nd ladder ensures they are recalled and searched.
IC ensures they are recalled,searched and controlled.


HI-RI MD'S. When can elevator shafts @ roof level be used for vertical vent?

When fire is under control and wind will not blow back down into the building.


Each FF and equipment is considered to weigh _____ ?

to b e GREATER than 275 pounds.


No fireman service. Who gets into the elevator?

Ladder officer and forcible entry team.
Engine officer and nozzle & control.
PS fireman service (Phase 2) OV gets in and engine FF gets out


HI-RI MD's. The OV is involved in outside ops the elevator car will be operated by Who?

BY FF's of the 2nd truck and or other member ordered by the IC.
PS at least 2 elevators driven in F.S. for the remainder of the operation.


HI-RI MD's. You encounter a building that opens directly into an apt or a small foyer with 2 doors servicing 2 apts, What do u do?

Take service or freight elevator.
BI/ familiarization drills and preplanning will determine these buildings.


HI-RI MD's. Who will declare a freight or service elevator safe for use? (NEW)

Company Officer
Take to 2 floors below the fire and standpipes are usually found in these staircases. U usually have to force your way into the 1st fl. staircase through the wire mesh door due to security reasons.


T/F The service/freight elevator and service stairs must be entered into the Cids?

should be entered.


There is F.S. elevators, Where should they be kept?

Keep one in the lobby and the other2 floors below the fire.


When would u force doors in the hallway other than the fire apt?

SEVERE smoke conditions in public hallway.
PS this is done when the main body of fire has been controlled.


When forcing a door for a place of refuge What side of the hallway must it be on? GOOD ??

The same side as the fire apt.


What are 5 reasons to give a 10-77?

Wind Impacted fire conditions.
ADVANCED fire on arrival.
HEAVY smoke on numerous floors.
Numerous reports of persons in difficulty due to smoke.
Fire is visible from the exterior on arrival.


Fire conditions can not be accurately determined, What signal do u give?

You can up grade to a 10-77 if it calls for it.


Fast Unit and CFR Unit are assigned to the fire sector when the fire above the ____ fl.

ABOVE 6th floor.
Staged on the floor below the fire.
PS 6th fl or below the IC will determine where to position these units.


Who will carry the elevator keys at a HR-RI fire?

Fast Unit


HI-RI. What are the exceptions to 1st and 2nd due engines not working together to stretch the 1st line?

There is none they always work together in HI-RI.


HI-RI. T/F When 4 lengths or more are needed in a stretch this should be included in the CIDS and made known to all 1st alarm units.

3 lengths


When variations are needed in terms of stretching on a floor below a fire due to building configurations shall be approved by ______ and entered in the CIDS.

Division Commanders


HI-RI MD's. Who picks the attack stairs?

Ladder and Engine Officer the attack does not have to have the standpipe in it. PD's engine and Ladder decide together.
PS in HI-RI Office Ladder officer determines the attack stairs
and standpipe has to be in attack stair.


IN HI-RI MD's, Who do u notify of the attack staircase used?

IC & 2nd engine


IN HI-RI MD's. Who will assist in keeping the apt door closed?

Engine Officer


**T/F In HI-RI the hose line shall not enter apt until ladder locates the fire and provides direction for the engine.

In most cases.


** T/F In HI-RI. APT door is open. Hose shall not enter public hallway until ladder locates the fire apt and provides direction for the engine.
PS Alternate strategies MUST be implemented.

In most cases.


HI-RI MD's. Who ensures hook up at the standpipe outlet?
Who ensures adequate pressure @ outlet?
Who should relive 1st due control at outlet?

1st due control
2nd due officer & 2nd due control.
2nd due officer & 2nd due control.
PS 2nd line, 3rd due control stays at outlet the whole time.


In HI-RI MD's can u use a fog tip?

U can use for venting only if PPF's are ineffective.


*IN HI-RI MD's who ensures the siamese is supplied?

2nd engine to arrive
Provide assistance where necessary


Who will obtain the post radio from the 1st arriving Batt Chief?
What Channel is the post radio on?

2nd arriving engine and bring it in the vicinity of the standpipe outlet where the 1st hose is being stretched.
Command Channel for the post radio.


**HI-RI MD's. What must the 2nd eng officer do when advancing into the IDLH with the 1st eng?

**Must advise IC. This will let the IC know when resources are needed for relief. Officer must tell IC where additional assistance is required on the 1st hose line.


HI-RI MD's Where does the 3rd engine get extra lengths from, since they will be stretching from 2 floors below the fire?

2nd and 4th engines


HR-RI MD's. Who is should be notified when the 2nd line is charged?

1st eng officer and control FF at the outlet.
Reason being pressure may drop.


HI-RI MD's. Can the 2nd line go to the floor above?
HI-RI Office. Can 2nd line go above?



HI-RI MD's. 4th eng brings what tools?

1 length of hose
standpipe kit
*(NO F.E. TOOLS)*-Notify IC if u need F.E.


HRN can they use the line already in place from the 2nd hoseline?

Yes u can or stretch your own


HI-RI MD's. 4th engine makes contact with dispatch because none of the 1st four engines have the HRN. Dispatcher will assign a unit with the HRN, who will put it into operation?

The IC will determine which engine will put into operation.


HI-RI MD's. CFR engine will report with what tools and to where? PS announce yourself and get id of Fast unit.

CFR equipment and F.E. tools.
PS remember no F.E. tools for HRN team.
Report to IC and stand by with Fast Unit.


If there is no access to a standpipe outlet below grade or lower floor because the area is a IDLH, What do u do?

Stretch a 2 1/2 from pumper.


HI-RI MD's. What is the 1st ladder responsible for?

Recall,gain control and prevent occupant use of elevator.
Control evac and attack stairway doors on fire fl.
Control of fire apt door.
Search and Vent of fire apt.


HI-RI MD's. 1st ladder will notify the IC/Engine Officer of 3 things?

Stairwell closet to fire apt.
Type of stairs.
Whether scissor stairs are labeled correctly.


HI-RI MD's. Who makes the selection on the attack stairs?

1st ladder officer and 1st engine officer will decide together.


**HI-RI MD's. U have a heavy smoke/heat condition in the public hallway. Who does the ladder officer get his report from before entering?

**2 places
Get report from FF's on the exterior and the roof FF operating on the floor above.


**HI-RI MD's. If unable to determine it is a wind impacted fire, What is done?

Ladder Officer and 1 FF make there way to fire apt to control the door. Other ladder FF stays at the stairwell door on the hallway side and engine officer stays on the stairwell side. IF wind impacted immediately leave public hallway.


HI-RI MD's. Once the ladder officer gets control of fire apt door, Who does he notify?

IC and engine officer and have line advanced to the fire apt door. IF wind is not impacting the fire and conditions allow the ladder can do a search. Leave a FF at the closed door on the inside.


HI-RI MD's. When do u chock open the fire apt door?

A charged line is advancing into the fire apt.


HI-RI MD's. The OV does a survey of the outside with LCC and if no outside ops needed, What does OV do?

If F.S. take control of an elevator and stay until relieved by IC. IF no F.S goto fire apt and help with search.


On project buildings, where do u find the stencil markings for the apts?

Either on or below the 1st floor window sill.
PS if there is any exception to apt lettering it will be found between the 1st and 2nd fl. This correct info is crucial.


HI-RI MD's. The roof FF will take which stairs to the floor above?

Attack if possible
Notify public hall conditions to the IC about the fl above.
Notify Ladder officer of apt lay out and fire location.


**New. HI-RI MD's. How does the roof ff determine wind conditions on the floor above?

Determine windows that serve the fire room. Keep the apt door open and opening a window in the room over the fire room. This should simulate conditions below.
**PS no more open stairwell


HI-RI MD's. Roof FF notices a person trapped, Who do u notify?

Officer and IC try to calm the person and call for LSR.


For a KO Curtain deployment can u brake the glass from the deploying window? MD's pg 58 last paragraph.

Close window onto the ropes. Call for extinguisher or hoseline.
PS IC only orders deployment of WCD


HI-RI MD's. Who brings the LSR if the roofman calls for it?

1st LCC unless victim can be reached from exterior by ladder. LCC notify officer if u are staying or going to roof.


**HI-RI MD's. If the LCC goes to the roof do not vent bulkhead until _______ ?
**Bulkheads of elevator machinery rooms shall not used for vent until ______ ?

main body id knocked down.
Fire is under control.


HI-RI MD's. Who checks the condition of top fl and stairways leading to the roof?

1st LCC must be teamed up if IDLH.
Notify IC and Ladder Officer of results.


HI=RI MD's. Who id the only person to take the attack stairs above the fire fl?

1st due roof


HI-RI MD's. FF's ____ take a fireman service elevator which services all floors above the fire floor.

PS take elevator with blind shaft on the fire floor.


HI-RI MD's. NO fireman service elevator, What do u do?

Take elevator 2 floors below the fire floor and proceed to the roof via evacuation stairs.


pg 59 F


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