Flashcards in Taxpayers also 38/68 build code Deck (185):
A force PERPENDICULAR to supporting member, EVENLY APPLIED to bearing structure?
PS eccentric does not pass through the center and load NOT EVENLY applied
A course of brick built out from the face of a wall, as steps in reverse?
Loads exerted outwardly on a horizontal plane?(walls usually not designed for this?
What are the dimensions of Gypsum Plank?
supported at 4' intervals or
7' if heavy gauge steel edged plate used
When masonry surfaces lose layers of mass, exposed to heat?
Tax, What class do they fall under?
Tax, What is the most common size?
Tax, What are the years they are divided into?
1900-1920 remove decorative cornice
usually 1 story some 2 story
1920-1960 most prevalent, usually 2 story,
remove decorative cornice usually no
Which tax is most prevalent?
Tax, 1920's are usually how many stories?
Usually 1 some are 2
Would be considered wood frame building with exterior masonry walls, tin ceilings
Tax, What years building would u be able to remove decorative cornice?
Tax, 20-60's are how big?
many are 2 stories- 1 tenant occupancy/ various stores on 1st fl.
Tax, 20-60's Are there fire walls?
Variable termination points
Tax, 20-60's does removing cornice provide access to cockloft?
In most cases no.
Tax, 60's-present What major difference would be in in this type of construction?
Steel Bar Joists replaced wood.
T/F Newest tax have floor&roof made of poured concrete on top of metal decking?
PS roofs also concrete slabs or fibrous material
ALL have poured pitch&gravel covering
Mezzanines are found in some taxpayers and the ceiling height would be considered?
access wooden stairs or ladder seldom another means of access
Taxpayers, sprinkler protection for
1938 exceeding ________ ft
1968 exceeding ________ ft
Tax. Sprinklers 2008 Group M- mercantile FULL building exceeding _____ sq ft or combined all fl and mezz exceeds _______ sq. ft
Tax. Sprinklers 2008 Group M- Mercantile Occupancy WITHIN a building exceeding _______ sq. ft
7500 sq ft. PS same as 1968 code
Also any area of any size 3 stories above grade
Also in HIRI building
Also UNenclosed stair/elevator connecting 2 or more fl.
Tax. Cocklofts Size?
4 inches to 6 feet
46 truck has a lot of taxpayers.
Tax. Most common roofs& floors?
What is sometimes found under the tarpaper
of older taxpayers?
Tax. roof joist are @ approx ______ ft intervals.
ps in older truss it is spaced 10-20 ft
Tax, Why do they invert, raise or reverse roof?
ps sometimes an INVERTED roof creates an additional cockloft
Trusses 2 major members?
PS webs in between
Tax. What are the most prevalent in modern construction in relation to LW Parallel Chord Truss
Open Web Joist
Steel Bar Joist
Tax. Wooden bowstring truss must be put in CIDS. What is abbreviation?
PS hump like roof. Longer Span= Higher Bow
Tax. Testing has concluded that decreased strength in wooden bow string truss may only support ____% of the load originally calculated.
pS this is geared towards the BOTTOM chord
Tax. Snow loads would be consider _______ load.
F.F load on roof would be considered _____ load.
PS FF jumping is an impact load
T/F Failure of 1 truss can cause failure of the entire truss?
Tax. In older truss roof buildings are spaced ______ ft?
PS beams installed between the truss to support roof covering
PS roof joist 20'
Tax. Do wood truss roofs get saggy or spongy?
NO, they fail without warning.
Do open web steel joist have a fire resistance rating?
PS rating depends on ceiling finish& finish roofing
Steel open web joists span _____ ft?
up to 60 ft
PS planks are staggered and may not end on roof supports.
Steel open web joists may collapse in ______ minutes if unprotected.
T/F "I" beams protruding above roofs also roofs built in step fashion are good signs of fire walls?
False, the side walls are made of wood sheathing and are detected by striking them with a tool.
Tax. Stability of masonry walls are very dependent on ___________.
integrity of the roof
(acts as a monolithic brace)
Also the load being concentrated in a VERTICAL
direction in the wall.
concrets walls ______
brick walls _______
T/F Front parapet walls are often supported laterally for long distances only receiving support at ends where they tie into crosswalls.
Tax. When observing walls, place a member where to observe if walls are out of plumb?
Tax.T/F Interior partition walls are not fire stopped at the floor & ceiling by wood sills & plates?
usually are fire stopped
Tax. Canopies/ Marquees 12'x24' marquee 4' deep app. _________ tons of water.
ps attached to inside of building to combustible material Required drainage usually ineffective.
Tax. I BEAMS
50' beam @ 970f= ____ stretch
100' beam @ 1000f= _____ stretch
Tax. When I beams are heated to 1000- 1500f strength drops dramatically these temps can be reached in _________ minutes
PS for smaller beam sections 30 min to beyond strength limitations.
Tax. Will cooling a beam regain its strength?
yes, under normal situations do not hesitate to cool these members. it will contract to original length.
Tax. Cast iron columns fail on an average of ____
about 30 min
Tax. Failure of a column is generally ____ serious than a girder or beam.
Tax. T/F Failure of a column in the cellar can cause the subsequent collapse of the floors and the roof.
Tax. Suspended ceilings u may find as many as ______ dropped ceilings in a particular store.
2 or 3
Tax. Does heavy wire lath & plaster or tin fall as a unit or multiple pieces?
It falls in 1 piece
PS sheetrock hinges in 1 piece
Tax, Due to its weight and ability to conceal fire/smoke,What would be the type of floor we are talking about?
terrazzo/concrete sometimes placed over wooden joists
Tax. How would u access the basement other than exterior and interior entrances?
paneling under display windows offers vent /steam operation.
PS especially in older types
Tax T/F In newer construction concrete floors at ground level and basements are prevalent?
with no basement or cellars
Tax. Cellar ceilings are required to be fire _______.
retarded but plaster ceilings make it deficient.
PS Partitions between walls in cellars are flimsy so there is no fire stopping.
Tax. Security doors in the _____ position give added weight.
PS FLUSH type siamese could be cover by these gates.
Tax. Doors in RESIDENTIAL installation could weigh
150 -400 pounds
Commercial will be larger
Tax T/F Forcing overhead doors that have lost spring tension makes it easier/
False may be futile
Tax. Smaller store have usually how many exits points?
What about larger?
2 means, costumers only aware of 1
Tax Newer type roofs are constructed of what material?
Light Weight Steel
Flat Wood Trusses
Tax. Who has the greater life hazard during all hours 1 story or 2 story
2 story (Clubs, Dance Halls,etc)
Tax. When talking about collapse what must u consider? 3 factors
Type of Construction
Intensity of Fire
Duration of exposed STRUCTURAL members
Tax. Which type of load has the greatest impact?
Impact, Static or Stationary
Read 4.2 Causes/ Warning signs of Collapse
Tax. What would be a major warning sign for collapse? Do not confuse this with causes.
Heavy fire burning out of control for 20 min or more. same goes for an inability to make headway within that time.
Tax. 1 cubic foot of brick work weighs about _____?
Tax. Would this be considered a cause or a warning sign, spongy/soft feeling on roof?
Tax. It is recommended to attack a smoke shop with 3 things in mind?
2 1/2 line
Consider knock down from sidewalk
Backdrafts 3 basic factors?
( do not fall for fire)
T/F Backdrafts dense black smoke is due to lack of o2, small quantities of free carbon and CO.
False large quanties
What are the colors associated with backdraft?
dirty brown,yellow brown,gray yellow
and dense black smoke.
Tax. What area of the building is particular vulnerable to backdraft?
PS u only need 25% of its space to contain the explosive mixture.
Tax. What is the most effective way to protect FF from backdraft?
open roof or area directly over the fire.
PS if horizontal is done 1st backdraft is greatly increased.
Tax.T/F It may be preferable depending on conditions to vent the front windows and allow the gases to ignite prior to entry?
Tax . An alternative to roof venting, (not as effective)
is the use of hoseline from where?
Flanking position or reach of stream.
operate line immediately once opened up
Tax. When a fire is at its ______ stage it can usually be extinguished with direct attack.
Tax. All horizontal and initial vert vent is controlled by who?
Ladder Officer PS vent at roof and forcible entry ay street level must be coordinated.
Tax. T/F Any change that would affect outcome or structural stability must be reported to sector supervisor?
direct to IC
Tax. Inverted roof are pitched in what direction?
Front to rear
Front&rear to center
Front/rear/sides to center
PS Mostly high side is in front
Tax. Where do most fires originate?
Rear of the 1st floor. Utilities storage and services are located here. Fire will extend to cockloft and this is the lowest portion. (no good)
Tax. What are the 2 types of ventilation?
Natural & Mechanical (fans)
Tax. What size is roof cut?
Tax. T/F Trenching, take the returns?
leave the returns they can be used as a boundary.
Tax. Cutting a hole calls for __ saws and ____ FF's
Tax. Roof sector supervisor must be assigned when ___ saw operations
MORE THAN 1 Could be Chief or Officer
PS If CRITICAL CUT a chief should be assigned
Tax T/F If a roof fails it drops as 1 piece?
section by section
Tax. When using fog adjust to the width of opening and stand back _____ ft.
4' to 5'
Tax, Nothing affects the outcome of a operation as much as _________.
Tax. Wooden joist beams are usually spaced _____ on center
PS flooring and boards are at right angles
Tax. Rear extensions usually tie into a larger girder this at times made the rear portion of the added roof _______ the older portion.
PS this created a larger void below
Tax. T/F The smaller 4x4 segment of the 8x8 can be pulled if necessary.
never pull until necessary leg cuts are
placed in cutting pattern.
Tax. At cellar fires cut the 1st floor where?
Near windows away from aisles and doorways
Tax T/F You might have to cut the roof for a cellar fire.
do not delay this cut
T/F Taxpayers with bwstrg truss roof under no circumstance shall a FF operate on the roof with a contents OR structural fire with metal,wood or combination.
Tax. Exterior ops should be primary tact in 3 situations
Large or advanced fires
Timber Truss or underside of roof on fire
vacants with bwstrg truss roof
Tax. How du u determine if fire is involved in the trusses?
Triangular cut in the sloping hip section in the front and/or rear of roof this will provide safety to TL
Tax. T/F U can use an exterior stream from TL, this may be directed into these triangular cuts to extinguish fire.
Tax. When needed to operate on bwstrg truss roof that is NOT on fire the IC must take into account?
Past history of truss failure in these buildings
Newer tax, the most common type of light weight open web steel joist are _____?
Corrugated Steel spaced at 4' to 6' apart
Tax. Light weight open web steel joists. What are is the roofman allowed and not allowed to do?
Must not cut
remove skylights and scuttle covers
Gypsum concrete decking weighs 17.5 cu.ft
What is the vulnerabilty of gypsum concrete?
White powdery substance
NO ROOF OPS
Tax. Who do u notify of gypsum concrete?
Roof Sector Supervisor AND IC
evacuate the roof
Interior ops conduct from areas of safety
Tax. Trenching hole is made how wide?
At least 3ft wide in any direction.
Tax. Can trenching take the place of vent holes?
PS not practical to trench are large area roof that is
no but may serve as an additional vent source.
Tax. Who may start a trench where he sees it necessary?
Roof sector supervisor
Mandatory notification to IC
Tax. Two handlines on advanced fire in store?
Extension in cockloft,adjoining or advanced fire in cellar? What alarms are these ???'s
extra engine and truck
special call a TL if not on initial response & use
Tax. A properly placed TL can cover a
frontage of _______?
Sufficient amount of portables to a taxpayer is how many?
Cover all sides and minimum 2 in the front.
Front ladders use as indication of boundaries of building or location of firewalls within building.
Tax T/F Consider the use of foam at cellar fires?
Taxpayers _________ must be given 1st priority.
What must be in position prior to vent and forcing entry to a taxpayer?
Tax. T/F You can reduce to 1 3/4 after the initial attack?
True as long as compatible to conditions. PS u can use 1 3/4 in exposures if compatible.
Tax. What do after the establishment of the initial line?
Tax. If difficulty in making entry what is the next step?
small hole in security door a small triangle shape below the center of the door or removal of window
Tax. When can a line be operated in to a trench?
entry delayed/ ceilings impossible to pull.
all FF's inside must be withdrawn.
lines shut down once interior ops are ready to resume.
Tax, There are 1 or more of the following 5 ways for an entrance to cellar?
INTERIOR TRAP DOOR
interior cellar stair
exterior flush sidewalk door
horizontal entrance from adjoining cellar.
Tax. T/F When there is interior stair to cellar, especially open stair, and conditions permit 1st line must be stretched to to this point.
PS 2nd line must come to this point
if 1st line goes down.
Tax. Can u use fog at cellar fires?
Yes, with discretion inadequate vent is a problem.
Tax. If u can not get line down stairs what is the next option?
Front or rear exterior entrances but not opposite each other
Tax. If ______ lines advancing in unison do not control the fire heavy outside streams will be required>
Tax. What is the last resort for a cellar fire?
Flooding 1st floor with stang or TL
Tax. Who ensures sprinkler is supplied?
3rd due engine
ACRO- TAX-PAY-ER 3
Tax. Can 1st line supply sprinkler?
yes if manpower and conditions permit
Tax. T/F 2nd engine assist 1st eng,stretch 2nd line if possible after supplying sprinkler. Supply sprinkler if manpower & condition permit?
Tax. T/F For a store fire bring the first 2 lines in through the front door?
Through the windows leave the doorway for fleeing occupants.
PS additional lines to adjoining or roof
Tax. Cockloft fires, put this in the proper order?
stretch lines into occupancies
stretch lines into occupancies
Tax. What kind of lines do u use from the roof?
NY Bent Tip
PS protective lines should be in place
Tax. Can u operate lines into the roof?
Generally not good practice.
Interior ops have to cease & FF to safe area
Remember older type build remove signs
Tax. What are the 3 major problems with cockloft fires?
Serious exposure to adjoining especially
Ducts spreading smoke,fire,gases
Tax.T/F Store fire 2nd engine can stretch a second line as a back up for the 1st line or into exposure.
PS may have to skip stores
Tax. Cockloft fire& exposure protection CRITICAL 1st engine does what?
1:deckpipe ILP will allow positioning for ladder
2:stretch handline to most seriously exposed build
PS exposure not critical 1st line to store
Tax. 2nd engine, Fire has control of the cockloft& exposure protection is critical. What do u do?
Assist 1st engine with 1st line
if staffing permits stretch a line to most severe exposure& operate into cockloft to confine/extinguish
Tax T/F in relation to cockloft fires there is no mention of 1st&2nd attempting to supply sprinkler
PS 3rd ensures sprinkler
Tax. Primary duty for ladder companies is____?
Tax T/F Many 2nd fl occupancies do not have a second means of egress.
T/F Taxpayer windows may be barred with steel or wood.
Tax T/F 1st ladder locates & ID's the fire?
True unless attending a life hazard then 2nd due would do 1st dues job.
Tax. TL may have to be positioned______ above street level.
1 to 2'
Tax. If high heat on the 1st fl and no visible flame AND smoke in many stores,What must u assume?
PS adjoining cellars must always be checked
Tax. No cutting of floors until ________.
protective hoseline in place.
cut near windows or under skylights
Tax. T/F Smoke ejectors can be placed over holes cut in floors or hung in openings close to the entrance through which the line is advancing.
openings remote to entrance.
Tax. Cellar fire, Forcible entry team 1st due shut utilities and are required to do what else?
Vent rear from INTERIOR when possible.
take show windows in front of cellar with IC app.
Vent as necessary after communicating with 1st ladder officer.
Force cellar and store entrances.
Tax. 2nd due forcible entry team goes where for cellar fires?
Adjacent stores & cellar entrances for extension
Tax. 1st due roof for a cellar fire, does he bring saw to the roof?
Portable to roof, vent scuttles etc
Tax. 2nd due roof for a cellar, does he bring saw to the roof?
If not required on the roof perform as directed.
Tax. 1st due OV for cellar fire, where does he pay particular attention too?
Who does he notify if entry is made?
1st floor rear
PS check rear/sides vent cellar/store from rear also team up with 1st OV or other
Tax. 1st due LCC for cellar fire if u are in a TL. Where du u place apparatus?
Front of fire building
1 TL per street front
Tax. 1st and 2nd due LCC's for a cellar fire if u are in an aerial.
Where do place APP and where do u go?
Place APP away
Join inside team if not directed otherwise
Tax. Most store fires start in the store at street level,
what part of the store are we talking about?
(usually in the rear of 1st fl.)
Tax. What type of partition walls usually separate stores in the same building?
Tax. Store/Cockloft fires is it good practice to probe the ceiling with a hook?
Tax. If u are to vent store windows what must be done?
Must have CHARGED line in
place authorized by IC
Tax. When dealing with ducts would u consider the the insulation flammable or non-flammable?
non-flammable with paper covering that may cause extension.
PS SHUT DOWN FAN MOTORS
Tax. Most fires extend through to the cockloft from the store OR cellar through______?
Tax. Cockloft fire make _____ ______ to see if fire has reached other portions of the roof.
PS also helps to mitigate backdraft
Tax trenching depends on 3 things?
size of roof
volume of fire
Tax. 2nd due forcible entry team shuts utilities?
1st due forcible entry team shuts utilities
Tax 1st due forcible entry does what at store/cockloft fires?
control life hazard
Tax. Where does 2nd due forcible entry team go for store/cockloft fires?
VES as necessary
Tax.1st Roof FF store/cockloft fires 1st due does what and brings what tools?
portable to roof.
Saw and Hook
Tax. 2nd due roof FF for store/cockloft brings what tools?
Saw with axe or iron
Tax. 1st due OV for store/cockloft does what and brings what tools?
check rear and sides for access.
VES if possible
T/F Tax 2nd due OV for store/cockloft goes to the roof?
He can team up with 1st OV or go to go to roof
Tax.1st due LCC of aerial usually places app away from building. When would be a time LCC extends it to the roof?
Fire extends to cockloft.
PS 2nd LCC places away& joins inside team.
Tax. Tools for forcible entry team.
Maul&Duckbill may be needed
Saw With Aluminum Oxide blade (apex to top)
Tax. Tools for the OV?
Tax. Tools for the roofman?
Saw with HOOK
Subsequent members axe OR halligan with saw if available
Tax. What size hooks must be anticipated?
Tax. Who reports in with the 10 and 12 ft hooks?
Trucks other than 1st and 2nd due in addition to there regular tools.
Tax Dance hall on the 2nd floor would usually have what type of stairway?
LARGE Open Stairway
Tax. T/F Limited penetration of LCS if 2nd fl. is divided into multi-occupancy use?
Interior ops at a taxpayer when would u consider illumination?
both Day and Night
Taxpayer what is the single most important factor?
Tax. 1938 code. Has a max Sq footage for street fronts.
1 street front _______
2 street front _______
3 street front _______
1= 10,000 sq ft
2= 14,500 sq ft
3= 17,500 sq ft
PS IF Sprinklered DOUBLE those numbers
Tax. 1938 code. Concealed roof spaces to be cut into areas of _________ sq ft or less by fire stops
3000 sq ft
PS. Wood purlins & Cross braces used for suspended ceilings 2000 sq ft or less.
Tax. 1938 code. Cellar ceilings are to be ______?
Tax. 1938 code. 2 adjoining stores may be covered by 3 things?
Tax. 1938 code. Openings on a lot line to have at least ________ minutes of protective assemblies.
Tax. 1968 code. What is the max sq ft if unsprinklered ?
7500 sq ft.
PS No limit if sprinklered must have siamese
Tax 1968 code. Construction class.
IIB = non combust ext. walls with _____ wood joist.
IIC= non combust ext. walls with ______ wood joist.
Tax. 1968 code. What size sprinkler system requires a siamese?
EXCEEDING 7500 sq ft
Tax. 1968 code. Unsprinklered concealed roof spaces to be cut into areas of _____ sq ft or less by fire stops.
3000 sq ft or less
Tax. 1968 code. T/F Fire escapes are prohibited in new buildings.
only allowed in altered buildings
with special permission.