Flashcards in peds100 Deck (29):
most common cause of bloody diarrhea in the US
what bacteria may cause mesenteric adenitis along w the gastroenteritis that may mimic acute appendicits
endoscopy of a patient with diarrhea demonstrates pseudomembranes
antibiotics for ETEC
quinolones or sulfonimides
antibiotics for EPEC
oral sulfonamides or quinolones
third gen ceph or fluoroquinolones
treatment for salmonella
not indic for uncomplicated gastroenteritis; treatment for invasive diseaes is third gen cef
treatment for campylobacter
oral erythromycin, but sx commonly resolve without treatment
treatment for yersinia
third gen ceph
treatment for c diff
oral or IV metronidazole; oral vanc is reserved for resistant cases
bacterial cause of watery diarrhea with massive water loss
treatment for cholera?
abx not needed; replace fluid loss
classic electrolyte finding in diarrhea
non-anion gap hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis
how do you get met acidosis in diarrhea?
bicarb loss in the stool
most common cause of pediatric HIV
perinatal transmission accounts for 95%
most infants born with HIV are asymptomatic for how long?
first year of life
why would infants not be symptomatic initialy?
all babies have transplacentally acquired antibody that may persist for 18-24 mos
diagnosis of baby of an hiv pos mom
HIV-spec DNA pcr is performed at birht and monthly until 4 mos of age; if neg at 4 mos, baby is considered not infected but still followed until lose maternal antibody
management of babies born to HIV infected moms
ZDV for 6 weeks; bactrim for PCP prophylaxis until HIV DNA pcr is neg at 4 mos; no breastfeeding; urine CMV culture to detect coinfection with CMV
immunizations in kids with HIV
they should receive all the vaccines except live varicella; MMR is okay for all except most sick; annual optho exam; regular monitoring of T cell subsets and HIV RNA PCR to detect viral load
why yearly optho exams in HIV infected kids?
to assess for CMV retinitis
clinical features of PCP infection
fever, hypoxia, and interstitial infiltrates
prophylaxis against PCP with what?
treatment for PCP infectio
TMP/SMX, pentamide, or atovaquone
risk for MAC is highest when CD4 count falls below what
characteristics of MAC infecton
fever, weight loss, night sweats, abdom pain, bone marrow suppression, and elevated liver enzymes
HIV puts you at risk for what malignancy?
lymphoma, esp B cell caused by EBV
primary cause of mono
EBV, but also toxo, CMV, and HIV