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Flashcards in peds2 Deck (50):
1

epstein peaels

small white epidermoid-mucoid cysts found on the hard palate; usually disappear within a few weeks

2

edema and webbing of the neck suggests what

turners syndrome

3

branchial cleft cyst

cyst on the lateral neck

4

cystic hygromas

really big cyst on the neck

5

cysts of the thyroglossal duct may cause what

midline clefts or masses

6

neonatal torticollis

asymmetric shortening of the sternocleidomastoid muscle

7

neonatal torticollis can be caused by what?

the baby being in a fixed position in utero or from a post-natal hematoma resulting from birth injury

8

pectus carinatum

prominent and bulging sternum

9

pectus excavatum

depresssed sternum

10

Poland syndrome

chest assym as a result of underdevelopment or absence of chest muscle (pectoralis)

11

def of tachypnea

RR greater than 60/min

12

what can you expect in preterm infant breathign

short apneic bursts that last 5-10 secs; no clinical significance

13

what should you consider with diminished femoral pulses

coarctation of the aorta

14

what should you consider with increased femoral pulses?

PDA

15

urachus

fibrous remnant of the canal that drains the urinary bladder that runs in the umbilical cord

16

diastasis recti

rectal abdominal muscles are separated into right and left halves; no treatment necessary; it will go away on its own as the abdominus rectus grows

17

umbilical hernia

caused by incomplete closure of the umbilical ring; more common in african american children; most close spontaneously and require no treatment;

18

when do you do surgery on an umbilical hernia

those that persist past 4-5 years and those that cause symptoms

19

perisistent urachus

complete failure of the urachal duct to close; may present with urine draining from the umbilicus because there is a fistula between the bladder and the umbilicus

20

meconium

obstruction of the left colon and rectum by dense dehydrated meconium

21

meconium ileus

occlusion of the ileus bymeconium due to lack of pancreatic enzymes

22

when is meconium usually passed by infants?

within 24 hours in 90% and 48 hours in 99%

23

what are abdominal masses in the new born most likely due to?

hydronephrosis, but can also be caused by many other things

24

hydrometrocolpos

caused by imperforate hymen with retention of vaginal secretions;

25

is hypospaldias associated with other urinary malformations?

nope

26

epispadias

urethral meatus on the dorsal surface of the penis; IS associated with bladder extrophy (protrusion from the abdominal wall)

27

in most males with cryptochordism, when do testes descend by?

12 months; if not by 12 months, then predisposed to malignancy

28

what three things shout be on differential for absence or hypoplasia of the radius

TAR syndrome (thrombocytopenia absent radii), Fanconi anemia, Holt-Oram syndrome

29

Fanconi anemia

different from fanconi syndrome; fanc anemia is bone marrow failure

30

holt-oram syndrome

skeletal abnormalities of the upper limbs and heart problems

31

Edema of the feet and hypoplastic nails

Turners syndrome or Noonan syndrome

32

rocker bottom feet

trisomy 18

33

myelomeningocele

protrusion of the cord and meninges through a defect in the vertebral canal

34

post-term delivery

42 weeks or more

35

SGA

below 5th percentile

36

LGA

greater than 90th percentile

37

common causes of LGA

prader-willi, nesidioblastosis (diffuse prolif of pancreatic islet cells), beckwith-weidemann syndrome

38

nesidioblastosis

prolif of pancreatic islet cells; can cause hypoglycemia

39

common complications of LGA infants

hypoglycemia and polycythemia

40

the 5 Ts of cyanotic congenital heart disease

tetralogy of fallot; transposition of the great vessels; truncus arteriosus; tricuspid atresia; total anomalous pulmonary venous connection

41

cyanosis in the neonate

always is a medical emergency!

42

100% oxygen test

ABG performed after giving the baby 100% ox; differentiates between lung and heart causes of cyanosis

43

tetralogy of fallot

VSD, pulm stenosis, RV hypertrophy, overriding aorta

44

truncus arteriosis

doesn't divide into the pulm artery and aorta

45

ox test in tetrology of fallot

administration of 100% ox increases paO2 only slightly (less than 10-1 mm Hg)

46

ox test for truncus arteriosis

Pa)2 increases more than 10-15 mm Hg when the baby is given 100% o2

47

ox test in infants with lung disease

giving 100% o2 will increase paO2 considerably;EXCEPT if baby has such severe pulm hyertension that there is a large R to L shunt through a PFO or PDA

48

Resp distress syndrome (RDS) caused by what?

lack of surfactant, usually seen in preterm infants

49

incidence of RDS higher in what race and what gender?

white babies and males

50

how to diagnose RDS?

CXR, diffuse atelectasis, ground glass appearance, air bronchograms