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Flashcards in peds83 Deck (24):
1

why would you give steroids with antibiotics to treat meningitis?

before or with first dose of abx; effectively reduce hearing loss in HIB meningitis

2

complications of meningitis

hearing loss is most common (up to 25% of patients); global brain injury occurs in 5-10%; SIADH, seizures, hydrocephalus; brain abscess, CN palsy; learning disability; and focal neuro defects

3

CSF in acute bacterial infection

high protein, low glucose

4

CSF in viral meningitis

normal to high protein, normal glucose

5

tuberculosis meningitis- CSF

lymphocytes predom (as opposed to PMNs in bacterial); very high protein; very low glucose

6

CSF in fungal meningitis

lymphocytes predom; normal to high protein; low glucose

7

CSF in parameningeal focus (brain abscess)

polys or monos predom; high protein; low glucose; CSF culture neg

8

aseptic meningitis

inflamm of the meninges with CSF lymphocyte pleocytosis; can be caused by virus (most common) or TB

9

classic finding on brain imaging for TB meningitis

basilar enhancement

10

acid fast stains in TB meningitis?

rarely positive

11

most common cause of aseptic meningitis

viral

12

most common cause of viral meningitis

enteroviruses, mumps, lymphocytic choriomeningitis, herpes viruses (EBV, CMV, VZV)

13

viruses that commonly cause encephalitis and meningitis together

arboviruses (St louis, Western equine, Eastern equine, west nile virus), influenza, herpes virus

14

bacterial causes of ASEPTIC meningitis

mycobacterim tuberculosis; borrelia burgdorferi (lyme dz); treponema pallidum(syphilis)

15

fungal causes of aseptic meningitis

coccidioides immitis, crypto, histoplasmosis

16

parasitic causes of aseptic meningitis

taenia solium, toxoplasma gondii

17

management of viral meningitis

none

18

management of TB meningitis

four meds: rifampin, pyrazinamide, isoniazid, and streptomycin; corticosteroids are also commonly used

19

which cause of aseptic meningitis has the worst prognosis?

TB; it has a 20% mortality in kids

20

common viruses that cause the common cold

rhinovirus, parainfluenza, coronavirus, and RSV

21

URI sx for how long should prompt the physician to evaluate for bacterial superinfection?

greater than 10 days

22

when do sinuses develop?

ethmoid and maxillary present at birth; sphenoid develop between ages 3 and 5 yo; frontal between 7 and 10 yo

23

how is sinusitis classified?

acute, subacute, and chronic based on the duration of symptoms

24

imaging for uncomplicated sinusitis?

no, it's a waste and not helpful