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Flashcards in peds21 Deck (49):
1

cause of psoriases

usually aut dom; causes immune disreg which causes epidermal proliferation

2

silvery scaled lesions

psoriasis

3

koebner phenomenon

new lesions develop at sites of skin trauma; seen in psoriasis

4

nai involvement in psoriasis

common

5

treatment of psoriasis

moderae or high steroids, UV light, vit D, salicylic aicd for scalp involvemnt, retinoids, and anthralin (downregulates epidermal growth factor)

6

miliaria rubra (heat rash)

cuased by disrupted sweat ducts near the upper dermis (by occlusion or friction)that results in sweat being released and sweat induces inflamm response

7

what does heat rash look like?

small erythematois pruritic papules or vesicles in areas of occlusion or areas that have been rubbed

8

treatment of heat rash

avoid occlusive clothing, avoid sweating; no meds necessary

9

serum sickness

hypersens disorder that initially appears as hives but then becomes systemic; meds like cephalosporin are common causes

10

erythema multiforme

hypersens reaction to many poss stimuli (drugs, viruses, bacteria, etc.)

11

three kinds of erythema multiforme

erythema multiforme minor, erythema multiforme major, stevens-johnson syndrome

12

classic skin lesion in all forms of erythema multiforme

target lesion with a fixed dull red oval macules with a dusky center that may contain a papule or vesicle

13

toxic epidermal necrolysis

severe reaction to drugs that results in widespread epidermal necrosis; clinical features may include sloughing of the epidermis, no target lesions are seen

14

niolsky sign

skin peels away with lateral pressure; often present in toxic epidermal necolysis

15

mortality in toxic epidermal necrolysis

10-30% because can get sepsis, dehydration, and electrolyte abnormalities

16

tinea capitus

fungal infection of the hair, acquired by human to human contact 95% of the time

17

clinical features of tinea capitus

patchy hair loss, in which hair breaks at the root (black dot ringworm) or broken hairs are thickened and white M canis infection); infected area may have scales and pustules

18

kerion

large red boggy nodule; may be present in tinea capitus and is a hypersens reaction to the fungus (dermatophyte)

19

occipital and posterior cervical lymphadenopathy

very suggestive of tinea capitus

20

diagnosis of tinea capitus

microscopic eval of hairs with 10% koh to identify fungal hyphae; hairs fluoresce under woods light if m canis is the infecting organism (5% of time)

21

treatment of tinea capitus

systemic oral antifungals (e.g. griseofulvin) for 6-8 weeks. Topical antifungals are ineffective; very contagious!

22

tinea corporis

fungal infection of the body

23

tinea pedis

fungal infection of the foot

24

tinea cruris

fungal infection of the groin

25

pathogens that cause fungal infection of the skin

m. canis, t. tonsurans, and other trichophyton species

26

tinea corporis aka

ringworm

27

clinical feautres of tinea corporis

oval or circular scaly erythematous patches with partial central clearing

28

clinical features of tinea pedis (athlete's foot)

present in postpubertal adolescents with sclaing and erythema between the toes or on the plantar aspect of the foot

29

clinical features of tinea cruris

scales and erythema int eh groin and inguinal creases

30

tinea unguium (onycomycosis)

fungal infection of the nails characterized by thickening and yellow discoloration of one or more nails (usually toenails)

31

treatment of tinea unguium

topical treatments don't work that well; systemic treatments sometimes work

32

tinea versicolor

caused by yeast that invades stratum corneum; scaly oval macules on the trunk, prox arms, and face; macules may be hypo or hyperpigmented and change with sun; infection can be asympt

33

diagnosis of tinea versicolor

koh exam (spaghetti and meatballs appearance) or under woods light

34

management of tinea versicolor

overnght app of selenium sulfide for 3-4 weeks; ketoconazole shampoo or cream, or systemic antifungal

35

viral exanthem

skin rash associated with viral infection

36

enanthem

rash involves the oral mucosa as well

37

morbilliform

measles like

38

scarlatiniform

scarlet fever like: papular, vesicular, and petechial

39

measles and rubella

cause rash

40

erythema infectiosum

fifth disease, parvovirus B19

41

fifth disease most common in who

school kids

42

how is parvovirus transmitted

resp secretions

43

parovirus can cause what

aplastic crisis (esp in patients with hemoglobinopathies), prolonged anemia in immunosupp patients, and fetal hydrops or miscarriage

44

clinical features of fifth disease

begins URI, then bright red macular rash on the cheeks; then lacy reticular rash on the trunk and extremities; arthalgias may be present but are more

45

best screening exam for red reflex

bruckner test (direct opthalmoscope at patient's eyes from 2 feet away)

46

hirschberg test

assess eye alignment by evaluating for the symm of light reflecting off both corneas

47

what is visual acuity at birth?

20/200

48

abnormal visual development results from what two possibilities?

improper eye alignment (such as strabismus) or some condition that blocks retinal stimulation (like congenital cataract)

49

when is visual development most crucial?

3-4 months