Flashcards in T1-Infants Deck (92):
What skills can an infant do at one month?
Demonstrate head lag
Has a grasp reflex
What skills can an infant do at 2 months?
Lift head off mattress when prone
Holds hands in an open position
What skills can an infant do at 3 months?
Raises head and shoulders off mattress when prone; only slight head lag
No longer has grasp reflex
Keeps hands loosely open
What skills can an infant do at 4 months?
Rolls from back to side
Places objects in mouth
What skills can an infant do at 5 months?
Rolls from front to back
Uses palmar grasp dominatly
What skills can an infant do at 6 months?
Rolls from back to front
What skills can an infant do at 7 months?
Bears full weight on feet
Moves objects from hand to hand
What skills can an infant do at 8 months?
Begins using pincer grasp
what skills can an infant do at 9 months?
Pulls to standing position
Creeps on hands and knees instead of crawling
Has crude pincer grasp
What skills can an infant do at 10 months?
Changes from a prone to sitting position
Grasps rattle by its hands
What skills can an infant do at 11 months?
Walks while holding onto something (cruising)
Places objects into container
Neat pincer grasp
What skills can an infant do at 12 months?
Sits down from standing position without assistance
Tried to build a 2 block-tower without success
What is Erikson's stage for this age group?
Trust vs. Mistrust
Is it normal for the tongue to be larger in proportion to the mouth in infants?
What is the average length at birth for an infant?
What do infants do in response to light and sound?
What age do infants usually roll over?
What age can infants sit without any support?
What age do infants start to walk?
Birth weight doubles by ___ and triples by ___
Doubles by 6 months
Triples by 12 months
What is the greatest stress during early childhood?
What would an older infants reactions to separation be?
Searching for parents with eyes
Clinging to parents
Rejecting contact with strangers
*trust would need to be met here--having the needs consistently met!!
Why do infants use sucking?
To reduce tension
At what age do infants respond to new stimuli?
How do infants respond to situations?
By watching the parents smiles and tone of voice
What are some good examples of toys for infants?
PAT A CAKE
MOBILE FOR CRIB (remove around 4-5 months though)
For infants, there are a lot of toys to give them, but what are their primary objects of play?
Their body parts are the primary object of play and pleasure
What kind of play do infants exhibit?
Is it ok to give an infant toys to play in a play pin?
Yes, it can be...but infants also need interpersonal contact and recreational and educational stimulation. Infants need to be PLAYED WITH, not merely be allowed to play
What is the most desirable complete diet for the infant during the first 6 months
If an infant is breast fed, when are supplements needed?
Iron is needed at 4-6 months because fetal iron stores are depleted
When should infants (breast and bottle fed) start on Vit. D?
The first few days of life to prevent rickets and vit. d deficiency
Is it okay to substitute breast milk or formula for cow's milk?
When is it okay to start whole cow's milk?
Is it okay to thaw or rewarm formula or pumped breast milk in the microwave ?
No! It won't heat evenly and can cause the mouth to burn
How do we warm frozen milk or rewarm it?
Place under lukewarm water bath, use a commercial breast milk warmer, or [to thaw] play n the refrigerator over night
What food should be avoided the first 12 months and why?
HONEY--risk for botulism
Dont coat the pacifier with honey either!!
When should solid foods be introduced? Can we give them earlier than that?
4-6 months, no you shouldn't because developmentally, the infant is not ready for it! PLUS it exposes infants to allergies earlier
What is the first foods to be introduced?
Iron fortified cereals and rice
Should we give fruit juices the first 6 months of life?
What is the primary source of nutrition during the second 6 months of life?
Human milk or formula
Why is iron fortified cereal generally introduced first?
Because of the high iron content and infant iron storages are depleted so they need iron
What is usually suggested as an initial food after the iron cereal and why?
Rice; easy digestible and low allergic potential
How should parents add new foods and why?
One at a time every 5-7 days
Don't introduce more than one at a time, because if infant is allergic to one you won't know which one
What juices should be avoided to give to infants 6+?
What is a good fruit juice for infants?
How much fruit juice can an infant get a day?
4-6 oz in children 1-6 years
and do not give to infants less than 4-6 months
ONLY GIVE 100% FRUIT JUICE
Why should fruit juice be offered in a cup and not a bottle?
To prevent dental caries
What is the order for giving solid foods?
Strained fruits first
What food can be given at 6 months?
What age can infants get finger foods?
What age should we offer a cup?
When can an infant get whole milk?
After 12 months
Why may an infant need fluoride supplements?
If the infant is exclusively breast fed and is not getting enough from tap water
When should spoon feeding be attempted?
After ingestion of SOME breast milk or formula so it can be associated with a pleasurable and satisfying experience! DO NOT try to spoon feed after an entire milk feeding because the infant isn't going to want to try something new at that point
Why should you try and introduce as many foods as you can during the first year?
This is when the infant is likely to eat them--toddler stage is next and toddlers are picky eaters!
The relinquishing the breast or bottle for a cup
Is there a specific age for weaning?
No, usually between 6-12 months though
What is the last milk feeding to go when finishing weaning?
The nighttime feeding
Is it ok to let a child take a bottle to bed?
No, major cause of baby bottle carried in deciduous teeth
What are the 4 big nutrition rules when feeding an infant?
-Dont prop the bottle
-Supplement fluoride at 2 months
-Do not put food or cereal in the baby bottle
-Introduce one new food every 4-7 days
What screening test is done in newborns?
What are signs and symptoms of having this protein auto recessive disorder? (7)
-Musty odor in urine
-Blond hair, blue eyes, fair skin
What immunization is given at birth?
What immunizations are given at 2 months?
What immunizations are given at 4 months?
What immunizations are given at 6 months?
What immunizations are given at 6-12 months?
What immunizations are given at 12-15 months?
When does the infant double and triple in weight?
Double: 6 months
Triple: 12 months
When do the anterior and posterior fontanels close?
Anterior: 12-18 months
Posterior: 6-8 weeks
What is Freud's stage of psychosocial development for infants?
Oral: mouth sucking and swallowing
Freud: In the first stage of personality development the lipid is centered in a _____. It gets much satisfaction from putting all sorts of things in its mouth to satisfy the libido, and thus its __ demands. Which at this stage in life are oral, or mouth oriented, such as ____, ___, ____.
sucking, biting, and breastfeeding
Freud said that oral stimulation could lead to an oral fixation in later life. What does this mean?
Oral personalities are all around us--smokers, nail biters, finger-chewers, and thumb suckers---oral personalities engage in these behaviors, especially when under stress
What is Piaget's stage of cognitive development in infancy?
How do infants progress in the sensorimotor stage? What are the 3 big tasks of Piaget's stage of cognitive development (sensorimotor)?
Reflexive-->simple repetitive-->imitative activities
2. Object permanence
3. Mental representation
The process by which infants know that an object still exists when it is out of view
Excessive or erotic interest in oneself and one's physical appearance
What age do infants roll over?
What age do infants sit alone?
What age do infants walk?
What age do infants gain head control?
Why do infants drool? When does the first tooth begin to appear?
Teething makes infants drool; the first tooth erupts between 6-8 months
When can the infant say several words and understand their meaning?
They can say THREE-FIVE words and comprehend "NO" by the age of ONE YEAR
How can you stimulate the infant's senses (4)?
Visual: bright, shiny objects; mirrors
Auditory: talking to infant; rattles; chimes
Tactile: hold, caress, cuddle; keep infant warm
Kinetic: Rock infant, place in cradle; use stroller for walks
When does stranger and separation anxiety occur in the infant?
How would a nurse best approach an infant and his parents to reduce stranger anxiety?
Talk softly; meet the child at eye level (to appear smaller); maintain a safe distance from the infant; avoid sudden, intrusive gestures --such as holding arms out and smiling broadly
When should an infant receive solid foods?
In what order should solid foods be introduced?
Veg or fruit: between 6-8 months
Citrus fruits, meats, and eggs-after 6 months
Table foods that are cooked, chopped, unseasoned by 9 months
How should a parent introduce new foods?
One at a time, over a 4-7 day period to observe for signs of allergy or intolerance
When should an infant begin weaning from the bottle?
When they show signs of readiness