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Flashcards in T1-Infants Deck (92):
1

What skills can an infant do at one month?

Demonstrate head lag
Has a grasp reflex

2

What skills can an infant do at 2 months?

Lift head off mattress when prone
Holds hands in an open position

3

What skills can an infant do at 3 months?

Raises head and shoulders off mattress when prone; only slight head lag
No longer has grasp reflex
Keeps hands loosely open

4

What skills can an infant do at 4 months?

Rolls from back to side
Places objects in mouth

5

What skills can an infant do at 5 months?

Rolls from front to back
Uses palmar grasp dominatly

6

What skills can an infant do at 6 months?

Rolls from back to front
Holds bottle

7

What skills can an infant do at 7 months?

Bears full weight on feet
Moves objects from hand to hand

8

What skills can an infant do at 8 months?

Sits unsupported
Begins using pincer grasp

9

what skills can an infant do at 9 months?

Pulls to standing position
Creeps on hands and knees instead of crawling
Has crude pincer grasp

10

What skills can an infant do at 10 months?

Changes from a prone to sitting position
Grasps rattle by its hands

11

What skills can an infant do at 11 months?

Walks while holding onto something (cruising)
Places objects into container
Neat pincer grasp

12

What skills can an infant do at 12 months?

Sits down from standing position without assistance
Tried to build a 2 block-tower without success

13

What is Erikson's stage for this age group?

Trust vs. Mistrust

14

Is it normal for the tongue to be larger in proportion to the mouth in infants?

Yes, normal

15

What is the average length at birth for an infant?

20 inches

16

What do infants do in response to light and sound?

Blink

17

What age do infants usually roll over?

4 months

18

What age can infants sit without any support?

6 months

19

What age do infants start to walk?

~1 year

20

Birth weight doubles by ___ and triples by ___

Doubles by 6 months
Triples by 12 months

21

What is the greatest stress during early childhood?

Separation

22

What would an older infants reactions to separation be?

Screaming/crying
Searching for parents with eyes
Clinging to parents
Rejecting contact with strangers

*trust would need to be met here--having the needs consistently met!!

23

Why do infants use sucking?

To reduce tension

24

At what age do infants respond to new stimuli?

6 months

25

How do infants respond to situations?

By watching the parents smiles and tone of voice

26

What are some good examples of toys for infants?

Mirrors
Colored toyes
Large balls
PAT A CAKE
MOBILE FOR CRIB (remove around 4-5 months though)
TEETHING TOYS
Blocks

27

For infants, there are a lot of toys to give them, but what are their primary objects of play?

Their body parts are the primary object of play and pleasure

28

What kind of play do infants exhibit?

Solitary

29

Is it ok to give an infant toys to play in a play pin?

Yes, it can be...but infants also need interpersonal contact and recreational and educational stimulation. Infants need to be PLAYED WITH, not merely be allowed to play

30

What is the most desirable complete diet for the infant during the first 6 months

Breast milk

31

If an infant is breast fed, when are supplements needed?

Iron is needed at 4-6 months because fetal iron stores are depleted

32

When should infants (breast and bottle fed) start on Vit. D?

The first few days of life to prevent rickets and vit. d deficiency

33

Is it okay to substitute breast milk or formula for cow's milk?

No!

34

When is it okay to start whole cow's milk?

1 year

35

Is it okay to thaw or rewarm formula or pumped breast milk in the microwave ?

No! It won't heat evenly and can cause the mouth to burn

36

How do we warm frozen milk or rewarm it?

Place under lukewarm water bath, use a commercial breast milk warmer, or [to thaw] play n the refrigerator over night

37

What food should be avoided the first 12 months and why?

HONEY--risk for botulism

Dont coat the pacifier with honey either!!

38

When should solid foods be introduced? Can we give them earlier than that?

4-6 months, no you shouldn't because developmentally, the infant is not ready for it! PLUS it exposes infants to allergies earlier

39

What is the first foods to be introduced?

Iron fortified cereals and rice

40

Should we give fruit juices the first 6 months of life?

No

41

What is the primary source of nutrition during the second 6 months of life?

Human milk or formula

42

Why is iron fortified cereal generally introduced first?

Because of the high iron content and infant iron storages are depleted so they need iron

43

What is usually suggested as an initial food after the iron cereal and why?

Rice; easy digestible and low allergic potential

44

How should parents add new foods and why?

One at a time every 5-7 days

Don't introduce more than one at a time, because if infant is allergic to one you won't know which one

45

What juices should be avoided to give to infants 6+?

Apple
Pear
Prune
Sweet cherry
Peach
Grape

46

What is a good fruit juice for infants?

White grape

47

How much fruit juice can an infant get a day?

4-6 oz in children 1-6 years
and do not give to infants less than 4-6 months
ONLY GIVE 100% FRUIT JUICE

48

Why should fruit juice be offered in a cup and not a bottle?

To prevent dental caries

49

What is the order for giving solid foods?

Strained fruits first
Vegetables seconds
Meats third

50

What food can be given at 6 months?

Crackers

51

What age can infants get finger foods?

7-9 months

52

What age should we offer a cup?

10-12 months

53

When can an infant get whole milk?

After 12 months

54

Why may an infant need fluoride supplements?

If the infant is exclusively breast fed and is not getting enough from tap water

55

When should spoon feeding be attempted?

After ingestion of SOME breast milk or formula so it can be associated with a pleasurable and satisfying experience! DO NOT try to spoon feed after an entire milk feeding because the infant isn't going to want to try something new at that point

56

Why should you try and introduce as many foods as you can during the first year?

This is when the infant is likely to eat them--toddler stage is next and toddlers are picky eaters!

57

The relinquishing the breast or bottle for a cup

Weaning

58

Is there a specific age for weaning?

No, usually between 6-12 months though

59

What is the last milk feeding to go when finishing weaning?

The nighttime feeding

60

Is it ok to let a child take a bottle to bed?

No, major cause of baby bottle carried in deciduous teeth

61

What are the 4 big nutrition rules when feeding an infant?

-Dont prop the bottle
-Supplement fluoride at 2 months
-Do not put food or cereal in the baby bottle
-Introduce one new food every 4-7 days

62

What screening test is done in newborns?

PKU

63

What are signs and symptoms of having this protein auto recessive disorder? (7)

-Musty odor in urine
-Blond hair, blue eyes, fair skin
-MR
-Growth failure
-Hyperactivity
-Vomiting
-Seizures

64

What immunization is given at birth?

HEP B

65

What immunizations are given at 2 months?

HEB B
DTaP
RV
IPV
Hib
PCV

66

What immunizations are given at 4 months?

DTaP
RV
IPV
Hib
PCV

67

What immunizations are given at 6 months?

HEB B
DTaP
RV
IPV
Hib
PCV

68

What immunizations are given at 6-12 months?

Flu

69

What immunizations are given at 12-15 months?

IPV
Hib
PCV
MMR*
Varicella*

70

When does the infant double and triple in weight?

Double: 6 months
Triple: 12 months

71

When do the anterior and posterior fontanels close?

Anterior: 12-18 months
Posterior: 6-8 weeks

72

What is Freud's stage of psychosocial development for infants?

Oral: mouth sucking and swallowing

73

Freud: In the first stage of personality development the lipid is centered in a _____. It gets much satisfaction from putting all sorts of things in its mouth to satisfy the libido, and thus its __ demands. Which at this stage in life are oral, or mouth oriented, such as ____, ___, ____.

Baby's mouth

Id

sucking, biting, and breastfeeding

74

Freud said that oral stimulation could lead to an oral fixation in later life. What does this mean?

Oral personalities are all around us--smokers, nail biters, finger-chewers, and thumb suckers---oral personalities engage in these behaviors, especially when under stress

75

What is Piaget's stage of cognitive development in infancy?

Sensorimotor

76

How do infants progress in the sensorimotor stage? What are the 3 big tasks of Piaget's stage of cognitive development (sensorimotor)?

Reflexive-->simple repetitive-->imitative activities

1. Separation
2. Object permanence
3. Mental representation

77

The process by which infants know that an object still exists when it is out of view

Object permanence

78

Excessive or erotic interest in oneself and one's physical appearance

Narcissism

79

What age do infants roll over?

4 months

80

What age do infants sit alone?

8 months

81

What age do infants walk?

11 months

82

What age do infants gain head control?

4-6 months

83

Why do infants drool? When does the first tooth begin to appear?

Teething makes infants drool; the first tooth erupts between 6-8 months

84

When can the infant say several words and understand their meaning?

They can say THREE-FIVE words and comprehend "NO" by the age of ONE YEAR

85

How can you stimulate the infant's senses (4)?

Visual: bright, shiny objects; mirrors
Auditory: talking to infant; rattles; chimes
Tactile: hold, caress, cuddle; keep infant warm
Kinetic: Rock infant, place in cradle; use stroller for walks

86

When does stranger and separation anxiety occur in the infant?

4-8 months

87

How would a nurse best approach an infant and his parents to reduce stranger anxiety?

Talk softly; meet the child at eye level (to appear smaller); maintain a safe distance from the infant; avoid sudden, intrusive gestures --such as holding arms out and smiling broadly

88

When should an infant receive solid foods?

4-6 months

89

In what order should solid foods be introduced?

Veg or fruit: between 6-8 months
Citrus fruits, meats, and eggs-after 6 months
Table foods that are cooked, chopped, unseasoned by 9 months

90

How should a parent introduce new foods?

One at a time, over a 4-7 day period to observe for signs of allergy or intolerance

91

When should an infant begin weaning from the bottle?

When they show signs of readiness

92

What are the leading causes of injury to infants? (3)

Falls
Ingestion injuries (poison and medication) Burns

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