T3-Hydrocephalus/Spina bifida Flashcards Preview

Pediatrics-MJ > T3-Hydrocephalus/Spina bifida > Flashcards

Flashcards in T3-Hydrocephalus/Spina bifida Deck (30):
1

Abnormal accumulation of fluid within ventricles

Hydrocephalus

2

What is the primary cause of hydrocephalus?

Blockage or obstruction somewhere along the circulatory pathway of CSF

3

What is the primary cause of hydrocephalus?

Arnold Chiari Syndrome

4

What is the secondary cause of hydrocephalus?

Acquired

5

What are S&S of hydrocephalus?

-Sunset sign
-Inc head circumference (??)
-HIGH pitched cry!
-Poor feeding if ICP is too high

6

Surgical treatment with shunt placement=?

Biggest complication is infection

7

Obstruction is one cause of hydrocephalus. What kind of obstruction is there with hydrocephalus?

Aqueductal obstruction

*the long narrow pathway between the 3rd and 4th ventricle

*can be due to infection, hemorrhage, tumor

8

What are the 5 other causes of hydrocephalus on top of obstruction?

-Myleomeningocele
-Intraventricular hemorrhage
-Meningitis
-Head trauma
-Tumors

9

For intraventicular hemorrhage cause. What causes the blockage?

Blood

10

For meningitis cause, what may restrict flow?

Meningitis

11

FOr tumors, what does it do to the ventricle?

Compression on the ventricle

12

How do we diagnosis hydrocephalus?

-Fetal ultrasound
-CT scan of head
-MRI
-Physical assessment

13

What does a CT scan reveal?

Enlarged ventricles

14

What are the two types of shunts?

Ventricular peritoneal & ventricular atrial

15

What does ventricular peritoneal shunt do?

Drains fluid from brain ventricles into peritoneum

16

What does ventricular atrial shunt do?

Drains fluid from brain ventricles into atria of the heart

17

What shunt is preferred?

Longer tubing can be inserted for VP than VA shunts, which allows for growth

18

When is ventricular atrial shunt usually used?

When abdominal surgery has been done

19

When is a ventriculoperitoneal shunt placed?

3-4 months of age--however it may be placed at any age as needed to treat secondary hydrocephalus (from conditions like meningitis or tumors)

20

What are 4 prts to ventriculoperitoneal shunt?

-Ventricular catheter
-Pumping chamber/reservoir
-One way pressure valve
-Distal catheter

21

What does the tubing drains of ventriculoperitoneal shunt do?

Drains excess CSF fluid from ventricles to abdomen

22

What is the main goal of treatment for ventriculoperitoneal shunt?

Reduce the ICP and to preserve CNS function

23

Surgery pre-op. Observe for signs of ICP. What are those signs?

-Bulging fontanel
-Take daily head circumference
-Behavior changes
-Irritability

24

Children being discharged after hydrocephalus: What should we teach parents?

-Child needs to avoid contact sports
-Need to wear protective helmets

25

Surgery post op: What should the child be placed..what position? Bed flat or elevated?

Unaffected side; flat

26

Why should they be placed on unaffected side and why should the bed be flat?

To avoid overdrainage

27

What are the complications of hydrocephalus?

Shunt malfunction---common causes are shunt obstruction and infection

28

When are shunt revisions needed?

As child grows

29

Shunt infection frequently results in ____ and may produce ___ or ___ along the shunt tract

Fever; reddening or swelling

30

What does shunt obstruction proceed?

Recurrent symptoms of hydrocephalus, increased ICP, or fluid along the shunt tract

Decks in Pediatrics-MJ Class (61):