T1-Toddlers Flashcards Preview

Pediatrics-MJ > T1-Toddlers > Flashcards

Flashcards in T1-Toddlers Deck (92):
1

What is the age of toddlers?

1-3 years

2

What is the Erikson stage here?

Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt

3

When does walking occur?

10-15 months

4

What age are kids ready to toilet train?

24-36 months; don't force this!! KIDS MUST BE READY

5

____ is very important with this age.

Touch

6

Toddlers are considered "____" of the environment--not safety conscious though!

"explorers"

7

By what age should the infant weigh 4x the birth weight?

2.5 years

8

How do toddlers express their autonomy?

Say no; may have tantrums

9

How do toddlers look?

Chubby, short legs; protruding abdomen

10

How are toddlers often soothed?

Toys and blankets

11

Age 2 head is ___% adult size

80%

12

Toddlers also have problems with separation (especially around 15 months). What may the toddler do?

-Verbally and physically attack strangers
-Beg parents to stay
-Express anger at caregivers
-Attempt to escape

13

How are toddlers going to solve problems?

Trial and error

14

Do toddlers respond to punishment and reward?

Yes

15

Toddlers are _____.

Egocentric

16

What kind of play to toddlers do?

Solitary play evolves into parallel play

17

What are 4 things toddlers can do?

-Climb stairs
-Ride a tricycle
-Object permanence
-RITUALISTIC BEHAVIOR

18

At approx. ___ months of age, most toddlers manifest this decreased nutritional need with a decrease in appetite, a phenomenon known as ______. What happens?

18 months; physiologic anorexia

They become picky, fussy eaters with a strong taste preference

19

What age is usually the age a child may be ready to begin toilet training?

After the child is walking--24-36 months

20

What are the 5 signs a toddler is ready for toilet training?

Bladder readiness
Bowel readiness
Cognitive readiness
Motor readiness
Psychologic readiness

21

What is the nurses most important responsibility in regards to toilet training?

Helping the parents identify the readiness signs in their child

22

When does nighttime bladder control occur?

Several months to years after daytime training

23

What is accomplished first: bowel training or bladder training and why?

BOWEL; because of its greater regularity and predictability--the sensation for defecation is stronger than that for urination and easier for the child to recognize

24

What are the physical readiness signs for toilet training? (5)

-VOLUNTARY control of the anal and urethral sphincters (usually begins 22-30 months)

-Ability to stay dry for TWO HOURS--decreased number of wet diapers waking dry from a nap

-Regular BM

-Can sit, walk, and squat

-Can remove clothes

25

What are the mental readiness signs for toilet training? (3)

-Recognizing the urge to go to the bathroom

-Verbal or nonverbal signs to indicate when wet or tell parents of the urge to go

-Cognitive skills to imitate appropriate behavior and follow directions

26

What are the psychologic signs for toilet training? (4)

-Expressing wilingness to please parents

-Ability to SIT ON TOILET FOR 5-8 MINUTES WITHOUT FUSSING OR GETTIN OFF

-CURIOSITY about adults or older siblings toilet habits

-Impatience when soiled or wet diaper--want to be changed immediately!!

27

What are the parental readiness signs? (3)

-Recognize the child is ready

-Willingness to INVEST TIME in training

-Absence of family stress or change (divorce, moving, new sibling, etc)

28

What are tantrums an indication of?

The child's inability to control emotions

29

Why are toddlers particularly prone to tantrums

Their strong drive for master and autonomy

30

What are the two suggested emotional and behavioral processes that cause a temper tantrum?

Anger and distress

31

What is the best approach toward tapering temper tantrums?

Consistency and developmentally appropriate expectations and rewards

32

When is it best to start the time out to help with managing temper tantrums?

18 months

33

What should we do as parents during a temper tantrum?

Ignore the behavior (unless the child is violently banging his head against the floor or something)

34

What kind of health problems do toddlers have?

ACCIDNETS
Dental caries
EAR INFECTIONS
Colds

35

When should we start to clean teeth?

Once the teeth erupt

36

What should we avoid so our toddler has good dental health?

Juices from the bottle

37

What do toddlers love?

Praise

38

When should toddlers see a dentist by?

Age 3

39

When does the birth weight quadruple?

2.5 years

40

In general, adult height is about twice the child's height at what age?

2 years old

41

What are some effective discipline techniques for toddlers: easy children?

Stern voice
Sustained eye contact

42

What are some effective discipline techniques for toddlers: difficult children?

-Time out
-Physical containment
-Rewards for good behavior

43

What is the best way to handle the temper tantrum?

BE CONSISTENT and ignore the behavior (if not injuries to the child)

44

Some other options for handling temper tantrums are:
-Offer child ____ instead of "all or none"
-Pick your ___ carefully
-Give ____ once child is able to control emotions
-___ for good behavior!!!

Offer OPTIONS instead of all or none

Carefully pick your BATTLES

Give COMFORT once child is able to control emotions

PRAISE for good behavior!!!

45

What is Freud's stage for toddlers?

Anal

46

Freud: The anus is the primary ____ zone and pleasure is derived from _____

Erogenous zone; pleasure is derived from controlling bladder and BM

47

Freud: The major conflict issue during this stage?

Toilet training

48

What can a fixation at this stage (Freud anal stage) result in?

Personality that is too rigid or one that is too disordered

49

When the child approaches 2 years of age, what stage of Piaget's cognitive development theory begins to be apparent?

Pre-operational phase: transition phase that bridges self-satsifying behavior and the undeveloped socialized behavior

50

Toddler behavior demonstrated by saying "no" frequently to assert themselves

Negativism

51

Does not like to take orders; may be contrary

Negativism

52

Inability to envision situations from perspectives other than one's own

Egocentrism

53

Maintaining routines and reliability, provides a sense of comfort for toddlers as they begin to explore the environment beyond those most familiar to them

Ritualism

54

Focusing on one aspect rather than considering all possible alternatives

Centration

55

Develop an awareness of a causal relationship between 2 events

Causal relationships

56

"Do you want to go to sleep now?" Toddler says NO

Negativism

57

Toddlers like to eat the same dish with the same utensil every time they eat

Ritualism

58

If a person is positioned between a toddler and another child, the toddler who is facing the person, will explain that both children can see the middle persons face (the toddler is unable to realize the other child views the middle person from a different perspective [the backside]

Egocentrism

59

Child refuses to eat a food because of its color, even though its taste and smell are acceptable

Centration

60

After flipping the light switch, toddlers are aware that a response occurs, they are not, however, able to transfer that knowedge to new situations

Causal relationships

61

Believing thoughts are all powerful and can cause events

Magical thinking

62

Attibuting lifelike qualities to inanimate objects

Animism

63

Domestic mimicry; the imitation of household activity

Mimicry

64

Child wishes someone dies and then they do die---the child feels at fault because of the "bad" thought that made it happen

Magical thinking

65

Child scolds stairs for making them fall down; disney universe

Animism

66

When does a child use be weird sentences or holophrases (pick me up; look up there)

Age 1

67

When does a child used multi word sentences by striking 2 or 3 words (mama go bye bye or all gone)

Age 2

68

When does a child use simple sentences, mastering grammatical rules and acquires 5-6 new words per day?

Age 3

69

What is an example of preoperational thinking?

A needle is something that hurts, so the nurse in the uniform wants to hurt me

70

Can children think in terms of operations?

No

71

How do children think?

Primarily on their perception of an event

72

What is the major fear of the toddler period?

Fear of strangers and separation anxiety (separated from your caregiver)

73

When can a child switch from whole milk to low fat?

2 years old

74

How much milk should a toddler get a day?

24-30 oz

75

How much juice can a toddler get a day?

4-6 oz

76

What is the food serving size for toddlers?

1 tbsp for each year of age or 1/4-1/3 the adult size

77

What are choking foods that toddlers need to avoid?

Nuts
Grapes
Hot dogs
PB
Raw carrots
Tough meat
Popcorn

78

What is physiological anorexia?

Decreased nutritional need with decreased appetite

79

Describe the type of play toddlers engage in.

Parallel play: toddlers play next to each other but not necessarily with each other

80

What is the rules for car seats for toddlers?

Remain in rear-facing car seat until 2 years old, or height recommended by manufacturer

81

What age do infants achieve pincer grasp?

9-10 months

82

What age do infants grasp very small objects? Fine or gross?

12 months
Fine

83

What age do infants drop a pellet into a narrow-necked bottle? Fine or gross?

15 months
Fine

84

What age do infants cast/throw objects and retrieve them? Fine or gross?

15 months
Fine

85

What age do infants throw a ball overhand without losing balance? Fine or gross?

18 months
Fine

86

What age do infants walk alone and use a wide stance for extra balance? Fine or gross?

12-13 months
Gross

87

What age do infants try to run but fall easily? Fine or gross?

18 months
Gross

88

What age do children have refinement of the upright, biped position; improved balance and coordination? Fine or gross?

2-3 years
Gross

89

Appropriate toys for toddlers?

Push/pull toys

90

A retreat from a present pattern of functioning to past levels of behavior

Regression

91

What can cause regression?

Any threat to autonomy--illness, hospitalization, separation, adjustment to a sibling

92

What can regression include?

-Refusal to use potty chair
-Temper tantrums
-Demand for bottle or crib
-Loss of newly learned motor skill, language, social, and cognitive skills

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