Flashcards in T1-Toddlers Deck (92):
What is the age of toddlers?
What is the Erikson stage here?
Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt
When does walking occur?
What age are kids ready to toilet train?
24-36 months; don't force this!! KIDS MUST BE READY
____ is very important with this age.
Toddlers are considered "____" of the environment--not safety conscious though!
By what age should the infant weigh 4x the birth weight?
How do toddlers express their autonomy?
Say no; may have tantrums
How do toddlers look?
Chubby, short legs; protruding abdomen
How are toddlers often soothed?
Toys and blankets
Age 2 head is ___% adult size
Toddlers also have problems with separation (especially around 15 months). What may the toddler do?
-Verbally and physically attack strangers
-Beg parents to stay
-Express anger at caregivers
-Attempt to escape
How are toddlers going to solve problems?
Trial and error
Do toddlers respond to punishment and reward?
Toddlers are _____.
What kind of play to toddlers do?
Solitary play evolves into parallel play
What are 4 things toddlers can do?
-Ride a tricycle
At approx. ___ months of age, most toddlers manifest this decreased nutritional need with a decrease in appetite, a phenomenon known as ______. What happens?
18 months; physiologic anorexia
They become picky, fussy eaters with a strong taste preference
What age is usually the age a child may be ready to begin toilet training?
After the child is walking--24-36 months
What are the 5 signs a toddler is ready for toilet training?
What is the nurses most important responsibility in regards to toilet training?
Helping the parents identify the readiness signs in their child
When does nighttime bladder control occur?
Several months to years after daytime training
What is accomplished first: bowel training or bladder training and why?
BOWEL; because of its greater regularity and predictability--the sensation for defecation is stronger than that for urination and easier for the child to recognize
What are the physical readiness signs for toilet training? (5)
-VOLUNTARY control of the anal and urethral sphincters (usually begins 22-30 months)
-Ability to stay dry for TWO HOURS--decreased number of wet diapers waking dry from a nap
-Can sit, walk, and squat
-Can remove clothes
What are the mental readiness signs for toilet training? (3)
-Recognizing the urge to go to the bathroom
-Verbal or nonverbal signs to indicate when wet or tell parents of the urge to go
-Cognitive skills to imitate appropriate behavior and follow directions
What are the psychologic signs for toilet training? (4)
-Expressing wilingness to please parents
-Ability to SIT ON TOILET FOR 5-8 MINUTES WITHOUT FUSSING OR GETTIN OFF
-CURIOSITY about adults or older siblings toilet habits
-Impatience when soiled or wet diaper--want to be changed immediately!!
What are the parental readiness signs? (3)
-Recognize the child is ready
-Willingness to INVEST TIME in training
-Absence of family stress or change (divorce, moving, new sibling, etc)
What are tantrums an indication of?
The child's inability to control emotions
Why are toddlers particularly prone to tantrums
Their strong drive for master and autonomy
What are the two suggested emotional and behavioral processes that cause a temper tantrum?
Anger and distress
What is the best approach toward tapering temper tantrums?
Consistency and developmentally appropriate expectations and rewards
When is it best to start the time out to help with managing temper tantrums?
What should we do as parents during a temper tantrum?
Ignore the behavior (unless the child is violently banging his head against the floor or something)
What kind of health problems do toddlers have?
When should we start to clean teeth?
Once the teeth erupt
What should we avoid so our toddler has good dental health?
Juices from the bottle
What do toddlers love?
When should toddlers see a dentist by?
When does the birth weight quadruple?
In general, adult height is about twice the child's height at what age?
2 years old
What are some effective discipline techniques for toddlers: easy children?
Sustained eye contact
What are some effective discipline techniques for toddlers: difficult children?
-Rewards for good behavior
What is the best way to handle the temper tantrum?
BE CONSISTENT and ignore the behavior (if not injuries to the child)
Some other options for handling temper tantrums are:
-Offer child ____ instead of "all or none"
-Pick your ___ carefully
-Give ____ once child is able to control emotions
-___ for good behavior!!!
Offer OPTIONS instead of all or none
Carefully pick your BATTLES
Give COMFORT once child is able to control emotions
PRAISE for good behavior!!!
What is Freud's stage for toddlers?
Freud: The anus is the primary ____ zone and pleasure is derived from _____
Erogenous zone; pleasure is derived from controlling bladder and BM
Freud: The major conflict issue during this stage?
What can a fixation at this stage (Freud anal stage) result in?
Personality that is too rigid or one that is too disordered
When the child approaches 2 years of age, what stage of Piaget's cognitive development theory begins to be apparent?
Pre-operational phase: transition phase that bridges self-satsifying behavior and the undeveloped socialized behavior
Toddler behavior demonstrated by saying "no" frequently to assert themselves
Does not like to take orders; may be contrary
Inability to envision situations from perspectives other than one's own
Maintaining routines and reliability, provides a sense of comfort for toddlers as they begin to explore the environment beyond those most familiar to them
Focusing on one aspect rather than considering all possible alternatives
Develop an awareness of a causal relationship between 2 events
"Do you want to go to sleep now?" Toddler says NO
Toddlers like to eat the same dish with the same utensil every time they eat
If a person is positioned between a toddler and another child, the toddler who is facing the person, will explain that both children can see the middle persons face (the toddler is unable to realize the other child views the middle person from a different perspective [the backside]
Child refuses to eat a food because of its color, even though its taste and smell are acceptable
After flipping the light switch, toddlers are aware that a response occurs, they are not, however, able to transfer that knowedge to new situations
Believing thoughts are all powerful and can cause events
Attibuting lifelike qualities to inanimate objects
Domestic mimicry; the imitation of household activity
Child wishes someone dies and then they do die---the child feels at fault because of the "bad" thought that made it happen
Child scolds stairs for making them fall down; disney universe
When does a child use be weird sentences or holophrases (pick me up; look up there)
When does a child used multi word sentences by striking 2 or 3 words (mama go bye bye or all gone)
When does a child use simple sentences, mastering grammatical rules and acquires 5-6 new words per day?
What is an example of preoperational thinking?
A needle is something that hurts, so the nurse in the uniform wants to hurt me
Can children think in terms of operations?
How do children think?
Primarily on their perception of an event
What is the major fear of the toddler period?
Fear of strangers and separation anxiety (separated from your caregiver)
When can a child switch from whole milk to low fat?
2 years old
How much milk should a toddler get a day?
How much juice can a toddler get a day?
What is the food serving size for toddlers?
1 tbsp for each year of age or 1/4-1/3 the adult size
What are choking foods that toddlers need to avoid?
What is physiological anorexia?
Decreased nutritional need with decreased appetite
Describe the type of play toddlers engage in.
Parallel play: toddlers play next to each other but not necessarily with each other
What is the rules for car seats for toddlers?
Remain in rear-facing car seat until 2 years old, or height recommended by manufacturer
What age do infants achieve pincer grasp?
What age do infants grasp very small objects? Fine or gross?
What age do infants drop a pellet into a narrow-necked bottle? Fine or gross?
What age do infants cast/throw objects and retrieve them? Fine or gross?
What age do infants throw a ball overhand without losing balance? Fine or gross?
What age do infants walk alone and use a wide stance for extra balance? Fine or gross?
What age do infants try to run but fall easily? Fine or gross?
What age do children have refinement of the upright, biped position; improved balance and coordination? Fine or gross?
Appropriate toys for toddlers?
A retreat from a present pattern of functioning to past levels of behavior
What can cause regression?
Any threat to autonomy--illness, hospitalization, separation, adjustment to a sibling