T3-Childhood Cancer Flashcards Preview

Pediatrics-MJ > T3-Childhood Cancer > Flashcards

Flashcards in T3-Childhood Cancer Deck (46):
1

What therapy is curative, palliative?

Radiotherapy

2

Complications of diseases: What is acute tumor lysis syndrome?

-Hyperuricemia

3

Complications of disease: What is superior vena cava syndrome?

Compression of mediastinal structures

4

For kids have surgery, what is important?

Age appropriate pre-op and post-op teaching

5

Radiation therapy: Pick ____ when available

Distraction

6

Chemotherapy: Manage side effects--Need to monitor ____.

Growth

7

What are some side effects to chemotherapy?

-N/V
-Mucositis
-Diet

8

If a child with chemo has N/V, what is a common DOC?

Ondansetron (zofran)

9

If a child with chemo has mucositis, what does this mean?

*she said this is an ATI type question a lot

Meticulous mouth care; no viscous lidocaine

10

Side effects of treatment: Infection-ANC less than ___ be concerned.

Less than 500

11

Side effects: Hemorrhage- Platelet count less than ____ be concerned and avoid skin punctures, rectal temps, and do mouth care with care

Less than 20,000

12

Side effect of treatment: Anemia..What does this mean?

Low hgb

13

Absolute neutrophil count. Less than ___ is risk of infection

Less than 1000

14

Absolute neutorphil count. Less than ___ is MAJOR risk of infection

Less than 500

15

Nutrition: Check mouth for what? What kind of meals can be eaten?

Check mouth for viscous lidocaine and antifungals

Meals: Small, frequent high protein, high CHO

16

What is alopecia?

A side effect of treatment that is hair loss out in clumps (patchy baldness) ---wig before hair falls out

17

Side effect of treatment: Hemorrhagic cystitis. What is this?

Chemical irritation of bladder

18

Side effets of treatments: Why do we give steroids?

Increased appetite and sense of well being---body image alterations, mood changes

19

How is infection prevented?

HAND WASH
Keep away from crowds

20

How do you prevent bleeding?

No sharp toys
No rectal temps

21

For cancer patients, what is a very important key point?

STRICT I&O!!!

*Hydration is very important!

22

Why is health promotion of dental care important?

Dentition is affected

23

Health promotion: Is it okay to give live, attenuated vaccines?

No

24

Immunizations: If vaccinated 2 weeks before or during chemo, they need to be ______ after chemo

Revaccinated

25

What is the most commonly diagnosed malignancy in children under 14?

Leukemia

26

Leukemia is a malignant disease of the blood forming tissues characterized by uncontrolled growth of _____ that fail to mature (____)

Uncontrolled growth of WBC (leukocytes) that fail to mature (blast cells)

27

What are the 2 main types of leukemia?

Acute lymphocutic leukemia (ALL) & Acute myelocytic leukemia (AML)

28

What kind of cells are involved in acute lymphocytic?

Overproduction of immature WBC resembling lymphoblasts

29

Leukemia risk factors for ALL? (4)

-Males
-Caucasians
-Siblings of child with ALL
-Downs syndrome

30

Some S&S of Leukemia?

-Fever
-Infection
-Pallor
-Bone pain
-Petechiae
-Lethargy
-Decreased hemoglobin
-Bleeding
-Hepatosplenomagagly
-Decreased leukocytes
-Increased blasts
-Decreased platelets
-Irritability
-Lympadenopathy

31

What are the 3 phases of chemo?

1. Induction
2. Sanctuary
3. Maintenance

32

What is the purpose of induction phase of chemo? What does it include? How long is this phase?

Purpose: To achieve remission

Includes: Prednisone, vincristine, and L-asparaginase

Phase lasts 4-6 weeks

33

What is the purpose of sanctuary phase of chemo? How long does this last?

-To prevent leukemia cells from invading CNS
-To destroy those leukemia cells already in CNS

2-3 weeks

34

What is the purpose of the maintenance stage of chemo? How long does it last? What drugs?

Purpose: Maintain remission

Lasts: 2-3 YEARS

Drugs: Variety

35

Chemo for leukemia: What does it mean if you are in remission?

Decrease blasts and normal formation of other blood elements

36

Chemo for leukemia:
What does it mean if you are in relapse?

-Increase in blasts and non-normal formation of other blood elements

37

Why is nursing management difficult for leukemia?

Due to multisystem effect

38

What are some psychosocial implications during treatment of cancer? (several, list as many as you can)

-Coping with shock of diagnosis
-Mastering new med jargon
-Know the roles of different caregivers to child
-Supporting sibs..still giving them enough attention
-Manage side effects
-Try to normalize family lifestyle
-Tell child, friends, and relatives of diagnosis

39

Psychosocial implications at the end of treatment: Why are there conflicting emotions?

It is a long awaited long desired milestone

40

Hodgkins Disease:
1. What age?
2. How is it staged?
3. What kind of lymph nodes?
4. Where is sentinel node?
5. *What is the cell diagnostic for this?*
6. What is treatment?

*=she said to know this!

1. 15-19 year olds
2. Stage I-IV and A vs. B for symptoms
3. Painless enlargement of lymph nodes
4. Sentinel node is the left clavicle
5. *Reed Sternberg*= Cell diagnostic for HODGKINS
6. Treatment: Radiation and chemo

41

What is the second most common cancer?

Brain tumors

42

What is the most common type of brain tumor?

Gliomas

43

What tumor is difficult to excise?

Infratentorial (over half of ped brain tumors are this type)

*the other type is supratentorial

44

What is most common finding of brain tumor?

Headache

45

Brain tumor: When is vomiting? Is nausea common?

Vomiting is usually in MORNING often WITHOUT nausea

46

Brain tumor in infants: Decreased or increased head circumference? What kind of fontanel?

Increased head circumference; TENSE fontanel

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