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Flashcards in T3-Cancer Group Work Deck (44):
1

What cancer is radiation contraindicated in young children and why?

CNS tumors; contraindicated in children under age 3 since the radiation can cause severe developmental problems in the future

2

What cancer does a fundus examination and why?

Retinoblastoma; the fundus allows visualization of the entire retina in both eyes to determine the extent of the tumor

3

What is the goal of chemotherapy?

To destroy as many cancer cells as possible without sustaining severe damage to normal cells

4

What is the first sign of Hodgkins disease?

Unilateral, nontender enlargement of a cervical node

5

What is the most common site of metastasis for osteosarcoma cancers?

The lungs

6

Chemotherapy principles: What are antineoplastic drugs?

Cancer drugs that are most destructive to rapidly reproducing cells (both normal and malignant)

7

Chemo principles. What are rapidly reproducing cells and in turn, what would the effect of antineoplastic drugs be on these cells?

1. Epithelial cells of GI tract--> Stomatitis, mucositis
2. Cells in bone marrow--> Bone marrow supression
3. Immature reproductive cells in pubescent children
4. Cells in hair follicles-->> Alopecia

8

What are the 4 most common sites of involvement for Rhabdomyosarcoma?

-Head and neck
-GU track
-Extremity
-Trunk

9

What age group and gender are most affected by Wilms' Tumor?

Age: Under 5, greatest frequency before age 3
Gender: Boys and girls affected equally

10

What cancer primary affects the SNS?

Neuroblastoma

11

Where do neuroblastoma cancer cells originate from?

Neural crest cells that are present in fetal development

12

What is the most common type of leukemia?

Acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL)

13

What cancer has the CNS body system especially targeted for prophylaxis?

Leukemia

14

What are the 3 treatment stages for ALL?

Conduction
Consolidation
Maintenance

15

What are the 2 types of aplastic anemias?

Congenital
Acquired

16

4 early warning signs of Wilms'?

Hematuria
Anemia
HTN
Abdominal mass

17

What is the definitive diagnosis for rhabdomyosarcoma?

Biopsy of the lesion

18

Where does osteoscarcoma occur most frequently?

The ends of long bones

-Distal femur
-Proximal tibia
-Proximal humerus

19

If amputation is to be done on a patient with osteosarcoma, the amputation is done on affected limb approx ____ above the extent of lesion

5-6 cm

20

Retinoblastoma: What is the most common second malignancy?

Osteosarcoma

21

What cancer uses radiation on the Mantle field and Inverted Y field?

Hodgkins

22

Hodgkins: Where is the mantle field and what are the effects of radiation here?

Mandible to diaphragm

-Dry mouth, loss of taste, swallowing discomfort
-Dry peeling in treatment fields
-Loss of hair at the back of neck and under the arms
-Decreased WBC
-Fatigue and N/V

23

Hodgkins: Where is the Inverted Y Field and what are the effects of radiation here?

Diaphragm to the lower border of pelvis

-Fatigue, N/V/D
-Decreased WBC
-Skin dryness and redness (mostly in groin area)

24

Hodgkins: Inverted Y Field radiation--are there any areas that are shielded from this radiation?

Yes, the bladder, rectum, and some of the intestines are shielded

25

CNS tumor--Why would tumors be classified as inoperable?

-If tumor is deep in the brain and vital structures are between the tumor and the skull
-If tumor is in vital structure

26

What syndrome is associated with a risk for leukemia?

Down Syndrome

27

What is leukemia?

Uncontrolled growth of WBC

28

What cancer affects the adrenal gland?

Neuroblastoma

29

The adrenal gland is often affected in neuroblastoma---consequently, what might serve as tumor markers in the urine?

Catecholamines

30

What is one of the most common presenting signs of neuroblastoma?

Abdominal mass

31

Leukemia:

What does bone aspiration do?
What does CBC do?
What does spinal tap do?
What does chest x-ray do?

Bone aspiration: Defines leukemia type
CBC: Which blood cell type is low
Spinal tap: Sees if spinal fluid contains leukemia cells
Chest x-ray: Rules out mediastinal mass

32

Why do signs and symptoms of CNS tumors vary? What do they tell about tumor?

Vary because signs and symptoms are directly r/t location of tumor---S&S tell where the tumor is in the brain (or at least gives an idea)

33

What cancer uses VAMP as a treatment? and what does that mean?

Hodgkins--Stage I or II

Vinblastine
Adriamycin
Methotrexate
Prednisone

34

What cells are diagnostic of Hodgkins?

Reed-Sternburg

35

Retinoblastoma: What is the most important factor in the prognosis for visual acuity?

Early diagnosis

36

What cancer does the Tikhoff-Linberg procedure and what is it?

Osteosarcoma--An alternative procedure to amputation

Take out affected portion of bone and replace it with metal rod

37

Osteosarcoma: Who is Tikhoff Linberg procedure done in?

Pts. with small lesions who have complete their growth---not children

38

What are 2 clinical features of osteocsarcoma?

Pain and swelling at the site of the disease

39

What is the most common soft tissue sarcoma in childhood and accounts for 5.8% of all childhood malignancies?

Rhabdomyosarcoma

40

What cancer is this: neprhoblastoma or embryonal kidney?

Wilms Tumor

41

What is the most common type of bone tumor in pediatrics?

Osteosarcoma

42

What disease serves as a model for understanding heredity and genetics of childhood cancer?

Retinoblastoma ---since the retinoblastoma gene is present in all body cells in inherited form but only tumor cells in non-inherited form

43

What cancer gets VEPA treatment and what does that mean?

Hodgkin's Disease-Stage I or II with unfavorable pathology or Stage III or Stage IV

Vinblastine
Etoposide (VP-16)
Prednisone
Adriamycin

44

What are 3 types of leukemias? Which is hardest to treat? Which is the most common?

1. Acute lymphocytic leukemia: most common
2. Acute myelocytic leukemia: harder to treat
3. Chronic myeloid leukemia

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