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Flashcards in T1-Preschoolers Deck (119):
1

What age are preschoolers?

3-6 years old

2

What is the Erikson's stage for this age group?

Initiative vs. Guilt

3

Preschoolers have strong _____

Imaginations

4

Does physical growth slow down or speed up during the preschool years?

Slows down

5

At what age can preschoolers brush their own teeth?

5 years old

6

How do preschoolers look appearance wise?

Tall and thin

7

Preschool years is the "____"

Play age

8

What are the 3 things the preschooler learns during the play age?

1. To imagine (broaden skills through play, including fantasy)
2. To cooperate with others
3. To lead as well as follow

9

What if the preschool doesnt succeed in initiative, but rather has guilt?

1. Fearful
2. Hands on fringes of groups
3. Depend unduly on adults
4. Restricted both in the development of play skills and an imagination

10

Are preschools capable of sharing and being kind to others?

Yes

11

Where do preschoolers learn most of their behavior?

Their parents

12

How do preschoolers test limits?

Ignores their parents

13

The preschool age is the age when you start to ___

Read

14

What do preschoolers become concerned with?

Death

15

What age Rides a tricycle

3

16

What age: Skips and hops on one foot

4

17

What age: Balances on one foot

3

18

What age: Skips alternate feet

5

19

What age: Broad jumps

3

20

What age: Catches ball reliably

4

21

What age: Jumps rope

5

22

What age: Ties shoes

5

23

What age: Copies a circle

3

24

What age: Uses scissors

5

25

__ Lbs overweight in preschool age can lead to major problems later

5lbs

26

If you're one year old, what kind of car seat are you in?

Rear facing

27

If you weigh 20 lbs, what kind of car seat are you in?

Rear facing

28

If you are up to 1 year old and over 20 lbs, what car seat are you in?

Rear-facing, convertible

29

What if you are over 1 and weigh 20-40 lbs, what car seat are you in?

Forward-facing, convertible

30

What age/weight can you get in a booster seat?

4-8 years old, over 40 lbs, 4ft 9 in or taller

31

Where do you sit if you are 13 years old?

Less than 13 in the back seat!!!

32

90% of poisonings occur _____

At home or relatives home

33

What age do most poisonings happen in?

Less than 6

34

What is the most common poisoning of preschoolers?

Tylenol

35

What is a toxic dose of tylenol?

150mg/kg or higher

36

How do we assess poison in a child, like what order?

ABCs
Respiratory
Cardiac
Neurological status

37

If a child has been poisoned, what should we instruct family to bring?

Vomit, stool, etc

38

What are 4 ways to remove the poison?

1. Induce vomiting
2. Absorbing the toxin (activated charcoal)
3. Gastric lavage (pump stomach)
4. Catharsis

39

When should we not induce vomiting to a child who has been poisoned?

If they are neurologically compromised

40

If we use activated charcoal to absorb the toxin when trying to remove a poison from a child, what should we do? and what are some problems with this method?

Hide the contents of the cup because it looks like black mud

Problems: aspiration, constipation, electrolyte imbalance

41

Who can we do gastric lavage on?

Neuro compromised
Small children
Those who are cyanide in color

42

What is the antidote for tylenol poison?

Mucomyst (acetylcysteine)

43

What is the antidote for benzodiazapene poison?

Romazicon (flumazenil)

44

What is the antidote for digoxin poison?

Digibind

45

What is the antidote for opioid (MSO4 and heroin) poison?

Naloxone

46

What are 4 prevention strategies to prevent poison?

1. TEACH
2. Get parents on the same level as a child would be and look around for possibilities
3. Passive measures (child resistant closures, symbols on bottles)
4. Active measures (locked box)

47

What is the best prevention strategy for poison prevention?

Locked box

48

Where is lead found in?

Lead based paint and gasoline

49

Who has the biggest problems with lead poison..like what age?

Less than 6 is more of a problem, particularly 2-3 year olds

50

How much lead do children absorb if they come into contact with it?

50%

51

What are some problems caused by lead poison?

1. Can't gain weight, developmental lags, headache, constipation
2. RBCs decrease--anemia
3. Tubule damage
4. Impulsivity, distractibility, hyperactivity--blindness. coma
5. ADHD..? (some think)

52

How do you diagnose lead poisoning?

Fingerstick---10mcg requires treatment

53

How do we treat lead poisoning?

Chelation
Adequate hydration

54

Lead is the most common metal poison. What is an example of another?

Mercury

55

What is a classic sign of mercury poisoning?

Painful extremities (acrondynia)

56

What is the treatment of choice for mercury poison?

Chelation

57

What are examples of safety proofing a home?

-Locks on cabinets
-Plants (some are poison if eaten)-get rid if so
-Safety container
-Grandma purse (pills)--don't leave the purse around
-Have poison control # easily accessible
-Look at environment from childs perspective

58

What is the preschoolers body build?

Slender, but sturdy
Graceful
Agile
Posturally erect
*litte difference between sexes

59

What is Piagets stage for ages 2-4?

Preconceptual

60

What is Piagets stage from 4-7?

Phase of intuitive thought

61

What are the 4 main points from Piagets stages for preschool?

Casuality
Time
Magical thinking
Very logical way of thinking

62

Resembles logical thought; explains a concept as if they've heard it described by others but understanding is limited

Casuality

63

Do not completely understand this and it is best explained in relation to an event

Time

64

Believe all thoughts are powerful and accept their meaning literally

Magical thinking

65

Accept meaning of words literally

Logical way of thinking

66

Preschoolers shift from totally _____ thought to _____ and ability to consider others ____

Egocentric to social awareness and can consider others viewpoints

67

What is Erikson's stage for preschool?

Initative vs. Guilt

68

When does guilt occur?

When preschooler is unable to do a task or they have misbehaved

69

What is appropriate for the initiative aspect of Erikson's theory for preschoolers?

Guide preschoolers to attempt activities WITHIN their capabilities while setting limits

70

Describe Freud's theory of psychosexual development in the preschooler?

Phallic: interest in genitals; leading to identification of same-sex parent; coming to terms with the Oedipal/Electra complex

71

What are the Electra and Oedipal complexes?

Electra: Girls want to marry their father and kill their mother

Oedipal: A boy subconsciously wishes his dad were dead so he could marry his mother

72

What is resolution of the oedipal/electra complex?

Identification with same sex parent

73

What is the preschoolers concept of time?

Don't completely understand it
Interpret it according to their own frame of reference

74

How is time best explained?

In relation to an event

75

What should we avoid using when talking to preschoolers?

Yesterday
Tomorrow
Next week
Any day of the week (ex: Wednesday)

76

Explain what is meant by the preschoolers magical thinking.

They believe all thoughts are powerful and may feel responsible for bad thoughts coinciding with the occurrence of a wished event

77

What is the preschoolers fear of body mutilation?

Fear and concern r/t the loss of body parts (their body part going down the drain)

78

What is the fear of body mutilation due to?

Poorly defined body boundaries and improved cognitive abilities

79

T/F: Preschoolers understand the concept of size--they understand that their body is too large to disappear down the drain.

FALSE; that DONT understand that concept--they think their body could wash down the drain too

80

How can nurses reduce the fear of body mutilation?

Actively involving the child in finding a practical method to deal with these frightening experiences

EX: Wash a doll in the bath so they know large objects won't go down the drain

81

Another way the nurse can reduce the fear of body mutilation is to expose the child to the feared object in a ____

Safe environment

82

What are successful training programs for body mutilation fears?

-Muscle relaxation
-Guided imagery
-Positive self talk
-Recitation of brave statements
-Thought stopping

83

What can you do when the child is not afraid of their body mutilation fear?

Use of rewards

84

What is the amount of words preschoolers know by the end of the 5th year?

2100

85

How do preschoolers speak at 3-4 years?

3-4 word sentences

86

How do preschoolers speak at 4-5 years?

4-5 word sentences

87

What type of speech do preschoolers use?

Telegraphic speech meaning ---words that are most essential to convey meaning

88

Preschools can follow simple directional commands. How many requests can they carry out at a time?

Only 1

89

Preschools usually ____ a question until they have an answer

Repeat

90

Preschools enjoy talking and ____ becomes their primary means of communication

Language

91

What are 2 major speech problems in the preschooler?

Developmental Stuttering
Dyslalia

92

Who is developmental stutter common in?

2-5 year olds--affects boys more than girls

93

What is developmental stutter due to?

A failure to master sensorimotor integration resulting in stuttering as a child tries to say the word they are thinking

94

How should parents/caregivers talk to children with a developmental stutter?

-Speak slow and clear
-Refrain from correcting the childs speech
-Resist completing the childs sentences
-Take time to listen

95

What if the developmental stutter lasts longer than 6 months?

Speech evaluation is indicated

96

What are common causes of speech problems?

Hearing loss
Developmental delay
Autism
Lack of verbal or psychosocial stimulation

97

What is dyslalia?

Articulation problems or reverting to infantile speech

98

Why do children get dyslalia?

Children pressured into producing sounds ahead of their developmental delay

99

How can dyslalia be prevented?

Educating parents regarding the usual achievement of speech producing during childhood

100

What type of play do preschoolers do?

Associative play (group play in similar or identical activities without organization or rule)

101

Does cooperation exist in associative play?

No

102

What are some examples of ways preschoolers play?

Playing ball
Putting puzzles together
Riding tricycles
Playing pretend
Dress up
Role playing
Painting
Simple sewing
Reading books
Wading poos
Skating
Computer programs
Electronic games

103

What are the 3 most characteristic and most persuasive preschooler activity?

Imitative, imaginative, and dramatic play

104

What can mutual play (parent and child) do for the preschooler?

1. Provide tactile and kinesthetic experiences
2. Maximize verbal and language abilities
3. Offer praise and encouragement for exploration of the world
4. Encourages positive interactions between the parent and child

105

When do imaginary companions begin?

2.5-3 years and until the child enters school

106

What are the 3 main purposes of imaginary friends?

1. Friends in times of loneliness
2. Accomplish what the child is attempting
3. Experience what the child wants to forget or remember

107

Is it ok to have imaginary friends..what should we tell parents about this?

Imaginary friends are a sign of health and helps differentiate between make believe and reality

108

Should parents acknowledge the imaginary companion?

Yes, but do not allow the child to use the playmate to avoid punishment or responsibility

109

What are some examples of toys for preschoolers?

-Tricycles
-Wagons
-Sport equip
-Crayons
-Dress up clothes
-Telephones
-Farm animals
-Trucks, cars, planes
-Medical kits

110

What type of muscle and coordinations skills should the preschooler develop?

Swimming
Skating
Skiing
Jumping
Running
Climbing

111

How do preschoolers do self-expression?

Through imaginary play

112

How should parents deal with the preschoolers sexual curiosity?

1. Find out what children know and think (so you can give correct info)
2. Be honest (use correct anatomic terms)

113

What are some of the fears of preschoolers?

Dark
Being left alone
Animals
Ghosts
Sexual matters (castration)
Objects/persons associated with pain

114

What is annihilation?

Another fear of preschoolers--the fear of being sucked down the drain or bleed to death from a cut

115

How do parents help their preschooler overcome fears?

Actively involving them in finding practical methods to deal with the frightening experience

EX: Nightlight if child is afraid of the dark


Expose the child to the feared object in a safe situation

EX: If a child is afraid of dogs, take them to the park and let them watch other children interact with dogs or let them play with dogs

116

What are some ways to block fearful thoughts in children who experience severe fears that disrupt family life? (4)

1. Muscle relaxation
2. Guided imagery
3. Postive self-talk or recitation of brave statements
4. Thought stopping

117

when do children become greatly influenced by the food habits of others?

Age 5

118

What is the average daily intake of calories for a preschoolers?

How much fluids?
How much proteins?

90kcal/kg--> average 1800 calories

Fluids: 100 mL/kg day
Protein: 13-19 g/day

119

How should fiber intake be calculated?

Equal the child's age plus 5grams per day

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