Flashcards in T1-Preschoolers Deck (119):
What age are preschoolers?
3-6 years old
What is the Erikson's stage for this age group?
Initiative vs. Guilt
Preschoolers have strong _____
Does physical growth slow down or speed up during the preschool years?
At what age can preschoolers brush their own teeth?
5 years old
How do preschoolers look appearance wise?
Tall and thin
Preschool years is the "____"
What are the 3 things the preschooler learns during the play age?
1. To imagine (broaden skills through play, including fantasy)
2. To cooperate with others
3. To lead as well as follow
What if the preschool doesnt succeed in initiative, but rather has guilt?
2. Hands on fringes of groups
3. Depend unduly on adults
4. Restricted both in the development of play skills and an imagination
Are preschools capable of sharing and being kind to others?
Where do preschoolers learn most of their behavior?
How do preschoolers test limits?
Ignores their parents
The preschool age is the age when you start to ___
What do preschoolers become concerned with?
What age Rides a tricycle
What age: Skips and hops on one foot
What age: Balances on one foot
What age: Skips alternate feet
What age: Broad jumps
What age: Catches ball reliably
What age: Jumps rope
What age: Ties shoes
What age: Copies a circle
What age: Uses scissors
__ Lbs overweight in preschool age can lead to major problems later
If you're one year old, what kind of car seat are you in?
If you weigh 20 lbs, what kind of car seat are you in?
If you are up to 1 year old and over 20 lbs, what car seat are you in?
What if you are over 1 and weigh 20-40 lbs, what car seat are you in?
What age/weight can you get in a booster seat?
4-8 years old, over 40 lbs, 4ft 9 in or taller
Where do you sit if you are 13 years old?
Less than 13 in the back seat!!!
90% of poisonings occur _____
At home or relatives home
What age do most poisonings happen in?
Less than 6
What is the most common poisoning of preschoolers?
What is a toxic dose of tylenol?
150mg/kg or higher
How do we assess poison in a child, like what order?
If a child has been poisoned, what should we instruct family to bring?
Vomit, stool, etc
What are 4 ways to remove the poison?
1. Induce vomiting
2. Absorbing the toxin (activated charcoal)
3. Gastric lavage (pump stomach)
When should we not induce vomiting to a child who has been poisoned?
If they are neurologically compromised
If we use activated charcoal to absorb the toxin when trying to remove a poison from a child, what should we do? and what are some problems with this method?
Hide the contents of the cup because it looks like black mud
Problems: aspiration, constipation, electrolyte imbalance
Who can we do gastric lavage on?
Those who are cyanide in color
What is the antidote for tylenol poison?
What is the antidote for benzodiazapene poison?
What is the antidote for digoxin poison?
What is the antidote for opioid (MSO4 and heroin) poison?
What are 4 prevention strategies to prevent poison?
2. Get parents on the same level as a child would be and look around for possibilities
3. Passive measures (child resistant closures, symbols on bottles)
4. Active measures (locked box)
What is the best prevention strategy for poison prevention?
Where is lead found in?
Lead based paint and gasoline
Who has the biggest problems with lead poison..like what age?
Less than 6 is more of a problem, particularly 2-3 year olds
How much lead do children absorb if they come into contact with it?
What are some problems caused by lead poison?
1. Can't gain weight, developmental lags, headache, constipation
2. RBCs decrease--anemia
3. Tubule damage
4. Impulsivity, distractibility, hyperactivity--blindness. coma
5. ADHD..? (some think)
How do you diagnose lead poisoning?
Fingerstick---10mcg requires treatment
How do we treat lead poisoning?
Lead is the most common metal poison. What is an example of another?
What is a classic sign of mercury poisoning?
Painful extremities (acrondynia)
What is the treatment of choice for mercury poison?
What are examples of safety proofing a home?
-Locks on cabinets
-Plants (some are poison if eaten)-get rid if so
-Grandma purse (pills)--don't leave the purse around
-Have poison control # easily accessible
-Look at environment from childs perspective
What is the preschoolers body build?
Slender, but sturdy
*litte difference between sexes
What is Piagets stage for ages 2-4?
What is Piagets stage from 4-7?
Phase of intuitive thought
What are the 4 main points from Piagets stages for preschool?
Very logical way of thinking
Resembles logical thought; explains a concept as if they've heard it described by others but understanding is limited
Do not completely understand this and it is best explained in relation to an event
Believe all thoughts are powerful and accept their meaning literally
Accept meaning of words literally
Logical way of thinking
Preschoolers shift from totally _____ thought to _____ and ability to consider others ____
Egocentric to social awareness and can consider others viewpoints
What is Erikson's stage for preschool?
Initative vs. Guilt
When does guilt occur?
When preschooler is unable to do a task or they have misbehaved
What is appropriate for the initiative aspect of Erikson's theory for preschoolers?
Guide preschoolers to attempt activities WITHIN their capabilities while setting limits
Describe Freud's theory of psychosexual development in the preschooler?
Phallic: interest in genitals; leading to identification of same-sex parent; coming to terms with the Oedipal/Electra complex
What are the Electra and Oedipal complexes?
Electra: Girls want to marry their father and kill their mother
Oedipal: A boy subconsciously wishes his dad were dead so he could marry his mother
What is resolution of the oedipal/electra complex?
Identification with same sex parent
What is the preschoolers concept of time?
Don't completely understand it
Interpret it according to their own frame of reference
How is time best explained?
In relation to an event
What should we avoid using when talking to preschoolers?
Any day of the week (ex: Wednesday)
Explain what is meant by the preschoolers magical thinking.
They believe all thoughts are powerful and may feel responsible for bad thoughts coinciding with the occurrence of a wished event
What is the preschoolers fear of body mutilation?
Fear and concern r/t the loss of body parts (their body part going down the drain)
What is the fear of body mutilation due to?
Poorly defined body boundaries and improved cognitive abilities
T/F: Preschoolers understand the concept of size--they understand that their body is too large to disappear down the drain.
FALSE; that DONT understand that concept--they think their body could wash down the drain too
How can nurses reduce the fear of body mutilation?
Actively involving the child in finding a practical method to deal with these frightening experiences
EX: Wash a doll in the bath so they know large objects won't go down the drain
Another way the nurse can reduce the fear of body mutilation is to expose the child to the feared object in a ____
What are successful training programs for body mutilation fears?
-Positive self talk
-Recitation of brave statements
What can you do when the child is not afraid of their body mutilation fear?
Use of rewards
What is the amount of words preschoolers know by the end of the 5th year?
How do preschoolers speak at 3-4 years?
3-4 word sentences
How do preschoolers speak at 4-5 years?
4-5 word sentences
What type of speech do preschoolers use?
Telegraphic speech meaning ---words that are most essential to convey meaning
Preschools can follow simple directional commands. How many requests can they carry out at a time?
Preschools usually ____ a question until they have an answer
Preschools enjoy talking and ____ becomes their primary means of communication
What are 2 major speech problems in the preschooler?
Who is developmental stutter common in?
2-5 year olds--affects boys more than girls
What is developmental stutter due to?
A failure to master sensorimotor integration resulting in stuttering as a child tries to say the word they are thinking
How should parents/caregivers talk to children with a developmental stutter?
-Speak slow and clear
-Refrain from correcting the childs speech
-Resist completing the childs sentences
-Take time to listen
What if the developmental stutter lasts longer than 6 months?
Speech evaluation is indicated
What are common causes of speech problems?
Lack of verbal or psychosocial stimulation
What is dyslalia?
Articulation problems or reverting to infantile speech
Why do children get dyslalia?
Children pressured into producing sounds ahead of their developmental delay
How can dyslalia be prevented?
Educating parents regarding the usual achievement of speech producing during childhood
What type of play do preschoolers do?
Associative play (group play in similar or identical activities without organization or rule)
Does cooperation exist in associative play?
What are some examples of ways preschoolers play?
Putting puzzles together
What are the 3 most characteristic and most persuasive preschooler activity?
Imitative, imaginative, and dramatic play
What can mutual play (parent and child) do for the preschooler?
1. Provide tactile and kinesthetic experiences
2. Maximize verbal and language abilities
3. Offer praise and encouragement for exploration of the world
4. Encourages positive interactions between the parent and child
When do imaginary companions begin?
2.5-3 years and until the child enters school
What are the 3 main purposes of imaginary friends?
1. Friends in times of loneliness
2. Accomplish what the child is attempting
3. Experience what the child wants to forget or remember
Is it ok to have imaginary friends..what should we tell parents about this?
Imaginary friends are a sign of health and helps differentiate between make believe and reality
Should parents acknowledge the imaginary companion?
Yes, but do not allow the child to use the playmate to avoid punishment or responsibility
What are some examples of toys for preschoolers?
-Dress up clothes
-Trucks, cars, planes
What type of muscle and coordinations skills should the preschooler develop?
How do preschoolers do self-expression?
Through imaginary play
How should parents deal with the preschoolers sexual curiosity?
1. Find out what children know and think (so you can give correct info)
2. Be honest (use correct anatomic terms)
What are some of the fears of preschoolers?
Being left alone
Sexual matters (castration)
Objects/persons associated with pain
What is annihilation?
Another fear of preschoolers--the fear of being sucked down the drain or bleed to death from a cut
How do parents help their preschooler overcome fears?
Actively involving them in finding practical methods to deal with the frightening experience
EX: Nightlight if child is afraid of the dark
Expose the child to the feared object in a safe situation
EX: If a child is afraid of dogs, take them to the park and let them watch other children interact with dogs or let them play with dogs
What are some ways to block fearful thoughts in children who experience severe fears that disrupt family life? (4)
1. Muscle relaxation
2. Guided imagery
3. Postive self-talk or recitation of brave statements
4. Thought stopping
when do children become greatly influenced by the food habits of others?
What is the average daily intake of calories for a preschoolers?
How much fluids?
How much proteins?
90kcal/kg--> average 1800 calories
Fluids: 100 mL/kg day
Protein: 13-19 g/day