T3-Head Injuries in Infants Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in T3-Head Injuries in Infants Deck (37):
1

The head of infants and younger children is proportionately ____ and ____ in relation to other body parts, therefor it is ____ likely to be injured

Large and heavy head= MORE likely to be injured!

2

What contributes to falls at young ages?

Incomplete motor development

3

What are head injuries major causes?

Falls
MVA
Bicycle injuries

4

Are infants heads more or less vascular than infants? What does this mean?

More vascular--head injuries can cause them to bleed to death

5

Acceleration forces: bruising at point of impact (___) and rebound bruising (___)

Impact: Coup
Rebound bruising: Contre coup

6

Brain mass movement rips across structure, breaks small filaments holding it together (shearing forces)--this results in what 2 things?

Cerebral edema
Compression of brain mass

7

Assessment: Head injury. What are the steps?

1. ABC
2. Spinal cord injury
3. Evaluate for shock
4. Neuro exam

8

Hypoxic-ischemic brain injury: Near drowning

Where do infants drown?
Where do toddlers drown?

Infants: bathtub
Toddlers: Toilet bowel

9

Hypoxic-ischemic brain injury near drowning--what is the definition of this?

Survival 24 hours after incident

10

What is prevention for hypoxic-ischemic brain injury near drowning?

TEACH

11

What head problem:
-Coup injury from initial impact
-Subdural vessels torn
-Bruising bc brain moves over skull floor
-Countercoup injury from secondary impact as brain moves forward and backward within skull

Shaken baby syndrome

12

What is the most common head injury?

Concussion

13

What are hallmark signs of concussion?

Amnesia
Confusion

14

Cranial injury: trauma must be extreme to ____

Fracture

15

T/F: Basal skull is relatively easier to fracture

True

16

Is basal skull protected or unprotected?

Unprotected

17

What fracture: Skin laceration and fracture

Compound

18

Meds for compound fracture?

Antibiotics and surgery

19

What fracture: Results in dural tear, hemorrhage into nose and middle ear

Basilar fracture

20

What type of fracture: Traumatic separations of cranial sutures

Diastatic

21

What type of fracture has racoon eyes ?

Anterior basal fractures

22

What type of fractures has battle sign? What does this mean?

Basilar--effusion of blood under ear

23

What are two characteristics of cranial injury---basal skull fracture?

Battle's Signs
Raccoon Eyes

24

Is this battle sign or raccoon eyes?
-Bilateral periorbital ecchymosis; associated with orbital fractures

Raccoon eyes

25

Is this battle signs or raccoon eyes?
-Retroauricuar ecchymosis
-Associated with fracture of auditory canal and lower areas of skull

Battle sign

26

Basilar skull fracture may tear dura..What does this mean?

Permit CSF to drain through an external passageway

27

Hematomas: Physical characteristics

What kind of support of the head? Who is particularly vurnuable? What kind of brain? What does this result in?

-Insufficient musculoskeletal support of head
-Very young particularly vulnerable
-Thinner and softer brain
-Results in greater, long term damage

28

Hematomas: Physical characteristics

Thinner and compliant skull of younger children allow for?

Increased tolerance to ICP and blunt force that causes fractures

29

Management of head injuries in children: Observation? (2)

-Neuro checks
-Changes in VS

30

Management of head injuries in children: Surgical interventions? (3)?

-Craniotomy
-Craniectomy
-Repair of lacerations

31

Unilateral dilated and reactive pupil is accounted with?

Intracranial mass

32

A fixed and dilated pupil may be a sing of ?

Impending brainstem herniation

33

Bilateral fixed and dilated pupils are associated with?

Brainstem herniation from increased ICP

34

How is decorticate posturing characterized?

Rigid flexion --associated with lesions above the brainstorm in the corticospinal tracts

35

How is decerebrate posturing distinguished? Associated with?

Distinguished by rigid extension; associated with lesions of the brainstem

36

What kind of meds for head injuries?

Antiinflammatory and pain management

37

What kind of long term problems may be associated with head injuries in children?

Physical problems and cognitive impairments

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