T3-Blueprint: Asthma & Heart Disease Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in T3-Blueprint: Asthma & Heart Disease Deck (49):
1

A reversible process characterized by variations in central and/or peripheral airway obstruction over short periods of time

Asthma

2

Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the airways in which many cells and cellular elements play a role. It is characterized by what 3 things?

1. Chronic inflammation
2. Bronchoconstriction
3. Brochial hyperresponsiveness

3

What are the clinical manifestations of asthma?

-Wheezing, sometimes rhonchi (beware the slitting asthmatic)
-Coughing
-Dyspnea
-Prolonged expiration

4

Are anti-inflammatory drugs controllers or rescuers?

Controllers

5

Anti-inflammatory drugs should be taken at the ____ everyday. Do we take it even if we have no symptoms and feel better?

Same time everyday; taken even if symptoms are not present and you feel better

6

What are some examples of anti-inflammatory drugs?

Fluticasone
Budesonide
Theophylline

7

What is the important thing to remember when taking the anti-inflammatory drug, theophylline?

Must check blood once a year while on this drug

8

What is teaching about metered dose inhalers?

1. Shake inhaler
2. Attach spacer
3. Tilt head back slightly and breathe out slowly
4. Insert mouthpiece
5. At end of normal expiration, depress inhaler firmly and breathe slowly (3-5 sec)
6. Hold breath 5-10 sec
7. Remove inhaler and breathe out slowly through the nose

*wait 1 minute in between puffs

9

Are bronchodilators controllers or rescuers?

Rescuers

10

How long does it take bronchodilators to work?

They are rescue meds--quick relief inhalers take 5 minutes to work

11

What are SABA meds? What is an example of when we should take these?

Albuterol
Levalbuterol
Terbutaline

Prior to exercise

12

What is an example of a LABA med?

Salmaterol

13

Who should Salmaterol not be given to?

Children under 12

14

What is an example of a combo drug? Is it controller or rescuer?

Fluticasone/Salmaterol (maintenance control)

15

What do corticosteroids do?

Decrease inflammation

16

What are some corticosteroid meds?

Budesonide
Fluticasone
Methylprednisolone (iv or oral)
Predisone (oral)

17

What is a non steroid anti-inflammatory NSAID drug? What does it do? How is it given? What are side effects?

Cromolyn Sodium

Stabilized mast cell membranes and inhibits release of mediators

Given via nebulizer or MDI

Minimal SE

18

Mediators of inflammation that block inflammatory and bronchospasm effects

Leukotrienes

19

Are Leukotriens controllers or rescuers? Example?

Control

Montelukast
Zafirlukast

20

Relieve acute bronchospasm; block PNS

Anticholinergics

21

What are examples for anticholinergics?

Atripine
Ipratropium

22

Ipratropium is an anticholinergic. What can this cause?

DRY MOUTH

23

What drug is this: blocks binding of IgE to mast cells and inhibits the inflammation associated with asthma

Monoclonal antibody (omalizumab)

24

Potent muscle relaxant that acts to decrease inflammation and improve pulmonary function?

Magnesium sulfate

IV drug (normally used in ER)

25

What should we watch in a child taking albuterol?

Tremors and tachycardia

26

What should we watch for in a child who is taking ipratroprium?

Dry mouth

27

What should we watching for in a child who is using inhaled meds?

Oral mucosa infection secondary to use of inhaled meds

28

What should we observe in a child who is using steroid drugs?

Assess weight, BP, electrolytes, glucose, and growth

29

What is a MDI spacer?

A spacer tha holds medicine in tube so cold can breathe in the medicine

30

Follows strep throat when strep is not treated properly

Rheumatic heart disease (RF-rheumatic fever)

31

RF is a disease caused by a group of bacteria known as ____

Group A streptococcus

32

Rheumatic heart disease can damage the _____

Valves of the heart

33

**Jones Criteria for RHD
What are the minor manifestations?

-Fever
-Artralgia
-Elevated acute phase reactants
-Prolonged PR interval

34

**Jones Criteria for RHD
What are the major manifestations?

-Carditis
-Polyartritis
-Syndenham's Chorea
-Erythemia marginatum
-Subcutaneous Nodules

35

Major manifestations of RHD: What is Sydenham's Chorea and how is it relieved?

Sudden, aimless, purposeless movements

Relieved by rest and sleep

36

Major manifestations of RHD: What is erythema marginatum?

Classic eruption of RF

Flat, macular, circular, distinct WAVY border on trunk or arms

37

Major manifestations of RHD: How is the rash? Itching?

Flat, macular, circular, distinct WAVY border--Chicken wire

NO itching

38

Major manifestations of RHD: What are subcutaneous nodules and what do they contain?

Small, hard, non-tender swellings

Contain Aschoff bodies

39

RHD: What can be given for polyarthritis (inflammation of joints)?

Aspirin

40

Mitral valve damage (valve is incompetent and stenotic)

Endocarditis

41

What is bacterial endocarditis?

Infection of valves and inner lining

42

Bacterial endocarditis is sequalae to _____

Bacteremia

43

What is s/s of bacterial endocarditis?

-Low grade, intermittent fever
-Malaise
-Athralgias
-New murmur

44

What is treatment for endocarditis?

Prophylactic antibiotics (penicillin) especially before dentistry and procedures

45

Systemic vasculitis

Kawasaki Disease

46

Kawasaki disease: what is ectasia?

Dilation of coronary artery that leads to aneurysm

47

Symptoms of Kawasaki disease?

-High fever
-RED EYES
-RING AROUND IRIS
-STRAWBERRY TONGUE
-Rash (desquamates)

48

What are serious symptoms of Kawasaki disease?

MI

49

Treatment for Kawasaki disease?

High dose of IVID and salicylate therapy

Aspirin!

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