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Flashcards in Unit 3 Terms Deck (47):

Republican Motherhood

- attitude toward women's roles present in emerging US before, during and after the Revolution

- patriots' daughters should be raised to uphold the ideas of republicanism


The "critical period"

- a period in which America faced economic, political and social chaos

- attempted to define itself as a strong country.


Annapolis Convention

- convention in which 12 delegates from 5 states (NJ, NY, PA, DE, VA) gathered

- they discussed and developed a consensus about reversing the protectionist trade barriers


Federalist Papers

- Collection of essays

- explained how the new government and constitution would work.

- John Jay, Hamilton and Madison wrote the essays

- they wanted to get NY state legislature to approve the constitution which they did


Shay's Rebellion

- protests by American farmers and state
- it was again state and local enforcement of tax collections and judgements for debt
- name came from leader Daniel Shays from Mass.
- took place in 1786-1787


Northwest Ordinance

- first organized territory of the US

- included lands beyond the App. Mountains, between British Canada and the Great Lakes to the north and Ohio River to south


Alexander Hamilton

- money man, Founding Father

- Chief aide to general Washington

- one of the most influential interpreters and promoters of the Constitution

- founder of nation's financial system

- Federalist Party founder

- founder of NY post


Whiskey Rebellion

-tax protest during Washington's presidency

- first tax imposed on a domestic product by newly formed gov.

- intended to help get rid of debt

- it was an armed rebellion in which people rebelled against the tax

- 1791-1794


Land Ordinance of 1785

- standardized system= settlers could purchase farmland title

- land sales provided revenue stream for congress


Genêt Affair

- Edmond-Charles Genêt was dispatched by French assembly

- they wanted him to enlist American support for French wars

- 1793-1794


Benjamin Benneker

- African American almanac author, surveyor, naturalist and farmer

- mainly self-taught

- known for being a part of a group led by Andrew Ellicott that surveyed borders of DC


Compact theory

- 13 colonies entered into contract about jurisdiction

- individual states= final judges of national gov. actions

- theory= basis for VA and KY Resolutions passed in 1798


Enumerated powers

- items found in Article I, Sec 8 of the Constitution

- set form of the authority of the Congress

- congress may exercise the powers that the Constitution grants it


Pinckney's Treaty

- established intentions of friendship between US and Spain

- defined boundaries of the US with the Spanish colonies

- guaranteed the US navigation rights on the Miss. River


"Strict constructionist"

- person who favors giving a narrow conservative construction of a given doc or instrument

- favor a strict constitution of the US

- limits or restricts judicial interpretation


"Farewell Address"

- letter written by Washington to the "people of the USA"

- wrote near the end of 2nd term as President

- classic statement of republicanism

- warned America of the political dangers they can and must avoid if they are to remain true to their values

- 1796


Jay's Treaty

- treaty between the US and Britain

- credited with credited with averting war

- resolves issues remaining since Treaty of Paris of 1783

- facilitated ten years of peaceful trade between US and Britain

- 1795


American Colonization Society

- founded by groups otherwise opposed to each other on issue of slavery

- ACS intended to support free African Americans

- presence served as "perpetual excitement" to enslaved blacks and threatened slave societies in south

- 1816


1st Bank of US (debate)

- Hamilton's bank proposal faced resistance from Jefferson and Madison

- claimed the bank was unconstitutional

- benefitted merchants/investors at the expense of the majority of pop.


Orders in Council

- type of legislation in many countries

- in the UK, this legislation is made in the name of the Queen by the Privy Council



- movement that opposed the ratification of the 1787 constitution

- Articles of Confederation gave state governments more authority

- they wanted the Bill of Rights and wouldn't sign constitution w/o it


Alien and Sedition Acts

- four bills passed by the Federalist dominated 5th US congress

- signed into law by Federalist president John Adams in 1798

- made it harder for immigrants to become citizens

- allowed president to imprison and deport non citizens who were deemed dangerous or from a hostile nation



- theory that state has right to nullify or invalidate any federal law the state has deemed unconstitutional

- never been legally upheld by federal courts


Bill of Rights

- first ten amendments of the Constitution

- created in 1789 and ratified in 1791

- James Madison was the author


"Loose constructionist"

- favoring a liberal construction of the constitution

- broader power to federal government


XYZ Affair

- political and diplomatic episode early in administration of John Adams

- involved a confrontation between US and Republic France that led to the undeclared Quasi-War


Virginia and Kentucky Resolution

- political statements in which KY and VA legislative took position that the federal Alien/Sedition Acts were unconstitutional



"Revolution of 1800"

- Thomas Jefferson defeated Adams

- 1st peaceful transfer of power between parties


Judiciary Act of 1801

- reduced size of Supreme Court

- six judges to five

- eliminated justices circuit duties


The "Marshall Court"

- vested rights in contract clauses

- expanded courts jurisdiction; judicial nationalism; blocking states regulations that limited property rights; freeing American commerce from restraints



- act of taking men into navy with or without force


Midnight judges

- last minute appointments made by US President John Adams

- helped to fill newly created circuit judgeships

- referred to in this terms because it's said that Adams signed appointments until midnight of his last day in office


Judicial Review

- power to override laws

- established during Marbury v Madison case

- 1803


Louisiana Purchase

- land deal between US and France

- acquired approximately 827,000 square miles

- each acre went for 3 cents


Barbary Pirates

- operated from North Africa

- US defeated them in Tripolitan Wars which helped the US gain credibility


Embargo Act of 1807

- made any and all exports from the US illegal

- Jefferson pushed Congress to pass this act


Non-Intercourse Act

- replaced Embargo Act of 1807

- lifted all embargoes on American shipping except for those bound for British or French ports

- 1809


"Great Compromise"

-agreement that large and small states reached
- defined the legislative structure and representation each state would have under the US Constitution


Abigail Adams

- wife of John Adams and mother of John Quincy Adams who were both Presidents

- John sought her advice with letters

- their letters served as eyewitness account of the American Revolutionary War home front


Gabriel Prosser's Rebellion

He gathered 1,000 rebellious slaves outside Richmond; however, two Africans gave the plot away and the Virginia militia stopped the uprising before it could begin



A Shawnee leader who fought against the United States expansion into the midwest who was defeated at the battle of Tippecanoe


Hartford Convention

A meeting of New England federalists held in Hartford CT. They opposed the war of 1812 and discussed a redress by Washington for their complaints and wrongs that had been done. It was the approaching end of the Federalist Party.


Treaty of Ghent

Ended the war of 1812. Territory captured in the war was returned to the original owner. It also set up a convention to determine the Canada/US border


Battle of New Orleans

A large British Invasion forced was repelled by the American army in New Orleans. Neither side knew the Treaty of Ghent ended the war two weeks before the battle. This American victory inspired American nationalism


Yazoo Land Controversy

The Georgia legislature sold 35 million acres of western land to provide companies at Bargain prices. Led to the Fletcher v. Peck Supreme Court Case


War Hawks

Western settlers who advocated war with Britain because they hoped to acquire Britains northwest posts and because they felt the British were aiding the Indians and encouraging them to attack the Americans. Henry Clay and John C. Calhoun


Milan Decree

Ruled that neutral ships that complied with the British orders in council were subject to seizure when they reached continental ports