Week 10 - Opportunistic and systemic fungal infections Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Week 10 - Opportunistic and systemic fungal infections Deck (19):
1

Which are the most common moulds causing systemic infection in humans?

Aspergillus, Zyomycetes, Fusarium and Scedosporium

2

What are the most common yeasts causing systemic infection in humans?

Candida and Cryptococcus

3

What are the most common dimorphic fungi causing systemic infection in humans?

Histoplasma, Sporothrix, Blastomyces

4

Which are the typical patient groups at risk for systemic fungal infections?

Anyone who is immunocompromised: organ transplant recipients, AIDS, immunosuppressant therapy, haematological stem cell transplant recipients

5

If you have a humoral deficiency, what infections are you most likely to get?

Encapsulates bacteria i.e. Streptococcus pneumoniae, Neisseria meningitides

6

Describe a zygomycete mould

Has broad hyphae that looks like ribbons
Displays rapid growth
Has sporing bodies

7

How do you treat Zygomycetes infections?

Intravenous liposomal amphotericin

8

Which site is the most common for invasive mould infections, and what are characteristic signs the look for?

The lungs.
Imaging should show: halo signs, air crescent signs and reverse halo signs

9

What is the differential diagnosis for sub-acute mononuclear meningitis?

Cryptococcal meningitis
Tuberculosis meningitis
Listeria meningitis
Sarcoidosis

10

What will Cryptococcal meningitis look like if stained?

-Stain with india ink
-round yeasts with surrounding capsule

11

What type of organism are fungi?

Eurkaryote. This has implications when looking at treating with antifungal drugs

12

Describe some features of rhinocerebral mucormycosis

This is a rare infection of the sinuses, nasal passages, oral cavity and brain caused by saprophytic fungi.
Often affects immunocompromised or diabetics

13

Describe the manifestation of invasive pulmonary aspergillious

Occurs when infection spreads rapidly from the lungs to the brain, heart, kidneys and skin. Symptoms include fever and chills, blood streaked sputum, headaches/eye symptoms, nosebleeds, unilateral facial swelling and skin lesions

14

What does a positive india ink result mean?

This test is used ot detect Cryptococcus neoformans in wet preparations. A positive result means that C.neoformans is present

15

How do you normally acquire cryptococcosis and what are the three presentations?

Via inhalation. It's often asymptomatic.
1. Pulmonary
2. CNS
3. Cutaneous

16

What are some features of CNS cryptococcosis?

Usually present with meningitis or meningoencephalitis, headache, seizures or blurred vision due to raised intracranial pressure

17

What host factors predispose you to candidaemia?

Neutropenia, marked immunosuppression, recent surgery, antibiotics

18

What are some manifestations of systemic candidiasis?

Candidaemia + organ invasion. Candida produces nodules, abscesses and tissue destruction in the organs it settles in

19

Which species of Cryptococcus causes deep seated mycoses?

Cryptococcus neoformans

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