Flashcards in Week 5 Fractures/US/Tissue Injury - Hoffman Deck (22):
mineralization of connective tissue
mineralization of cartilage
Where are osteoblasts, chondrocytes, and fibroblasts derived from?
Pluripotent mesenchymal cells
Where are osteoclasts derived from?
fracture site becomes stable and pain free
plain radiographs show bone trabeculae or cortical bone crossing the fracture site
In which direction does maturation of the growth plate occur?
distal to proximal
Radiopaque vs. radiolucent
Radiopaque= relative impenetrability to x-rays
Radiolucent- relative penetrability to x-rays
Key principles of x-rays?
An x-ray is only as good as the history and physical exam!
Metaphysis and diaphysis
diaphysis = long shaft
Metaphysis = diaphysis to joint
What is a fracture?
a complete disruption in the continuity of a bone = a radiolucent line on x-ray!
What are the indirect signs of a fracture?
-obliteration or displacement of fat stripes (pad)
-periosteal and endosteal reaction
-buckling of the cortex
-double cortical line
Advantages of ultra sound?
-High resolution capability
-Image not degraded by metal
-expands diagnostic capabilities
Define musculoskeletal ultrasound
-use of high frequency sound waves to image soft tissues and bony structures for the purposes of diagnosing pathology or guiding real-time interventional procedures
MSK US 1-20 MHz
lower frequency = less detail, but can see deeper
resistance to sound waves
-muscle has less acoustic impedance. Bone has a lot of acoustic impedance (bright)
Hyperechoic- more reflection (brighter)
Hypoechoic- less reflection (darker)
detects flow - vascularity
long and short axis
long axis- parallel
short axis- perpendicular