Week 5 Fractures/US/Tissue Injury - Hoffman Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Week 5 Fractures/US/Tissue Injury - Hoffman Deck (22):
1

Intramembranous ossificiation

mineralization of connective tissue

2

Endochondral ossification

mineralization of cartilage

3

Woven Bone

immature bone

4

Lamellar Bone

Mature Bone

5

Where are osteoblasts, chondrocytes, and fibroblasts derived from?

Pluripotent mesenchymal cells

6

Where are osteoclasts derived from?

Monocytes

7

Clinical Union

fracture site becomes stable and pain free

8

Radiographic union

plain radiographs show bone trabeculae or cortical bone crossing the fracture site

9

In which direction does maturation of the growth plate occur?

distal to proximal

10

Radiopaque vs. radiolucent

Radiopaque= relative impenetrability to x-rays

Radiolucent- relative penetrability to x-rays

11

Key principles of x-rays?

An x-ray is only as good as the history and physical exam!

12

Metaphysis and diaphysis

diaphysis = long shaft
Metaphysis = diaphysis to joint

13

What is a fracture?

a complete disruption in the continuity of a bone = a radiolucent line on x-ray!

14

What are the indirect signs of a fracture?

-soft-tissue swelling
-obliteration or displacement of fat stripes (pad)
-periosteal and endosteal reaction
-buckling of the cortex
-double cortical line

15

Advantages of ultra sound?

-High resolution capability
-Portability
-Cost
-real-time
-radiation-free
-Image not degraded by metal
-expands diagnostic capabilities

16

Define musculoskeletal ultrasound

-use of high frequency sound waves to image soft tissues and bony structures for the purposes of diagnosing pathology or guiding real-time interventional procedures

17

Frequency

MSK US 1-20 MHz
lower frequency = less detail, but can see deeper

18

Acoustic impedance

resistance to sound waves

-muscle has less acoustic impedance. Bone has a lot of acoustic impedance (bright)

19

Echogenicity

Hyperechoic- more reflection (brighter)

Hypoechoic- less reflection (darker)

20

Doopler

detects flow - vascularity

21

long and short axis

long axis- parallel
short axis- perpendicular

22

Disadvantages of MSK US?

Limited field of view
limited penetration
incomplete evaluation of bone and intra-articular structures
-lack of competency and oversight
-operator dependent