14 - The Cardiovascular System Flashcards Preview

National Exam > 14 - The Cardiovascular System > Flashcards

Flashcards in 14 - The Cardiovascular System Deck (107):
0

The study of the heart and the circulatory system and it's diseases and disorders.

Cardiology

1

What are the functions of blood?

Transport gases, nutrients, and hormones throughout the body tissues; remove waste products from the tissues; regulate the body's pH; regulate the amounts of fluid present in the tissues; assist in regulating body temperature; and protect against pathogens.

2

What percent is the plasma in the blood?

55%

3

Plasma is composed of what percent of water?

90%

4

Regulates the blood pressure by functioning like a sponge to keep water in the vascular compartment to maintain plasma volume.

Albumins

5

Helps fight infection and transport a variety of substances.

Globulins

6

Causes blood to clot.

Fibrinogens

7

What percentage of blood is red blood cells?

40 -50%

8

Another term for red blood cells.

Erythrocytes

9

Another term for white blood cells.

Leukocytes

10

Cell fragments that contribute to blood clotting.

Thrombocytes

11

The process of blood clotting.

Coagulation

12

Another term for blood clot.

Thrombus

13

A blood clot that breaks free and moves through the vessel.

Embolism

14

The blood types depend on the presence or absence of what?

ABO antigens

15

The major vein draining the thorax and the head, ending at the right atrium.

Superior vena cava

16

A large venous trunk draining the lower extremities and the abdominopelvic region.

Inferior vena cava

17

The only veins that carries oxygenated blood from the lungs to the left atrium.

Pulmonary veins

18

A measurement of the volume of blood ejected from the heart per minute.

Cardiac output

19

The contraction phase of the cardiac cycle.

Systole

20

A contraction of the atrium.

Atrial systole

21

The pacemaker of the heart; it is the impulse-generating tissue that normally dictates heart rate.

Sinoatrial node (SA)

22

The largest artery in the body; it originates at the heart and branches into the extremities, the neck, and all the major organs; supplies oxygenated blood throughout the body.

Aorta

23

A heart valve that divides the left ventricle from the aorta.

Aortic valve

24

A vessel that carries blood away from the heart.

Artery

25

A structure located between the atria and the ventricles that conducts electrical impulses from the atria to the ventricles.

Atrioventricular node (AV)

26

One of the two upper (receiving) chambers of the heart.

Atrium

27

A pressure receptor on the inside walls of some arteries that is sensitive to stretching of the walls occurring from an increase in pressure.

Baroreceptor

28

The heart valve that divides the left atrium from the left ventricle. It has two flaps; also known as the mitral valve.

Bicuspid valve

29

A group of specialized cells that rapidly conduct electrical impulses down into the ventricles.

Bundle branch

30

The smallest blood vessel that contains oxygenated blood.

Capillary

31

The complete round of circulation from the time one event in the heart occurs until the instant when the same event occurs again.

Cardiac cycle

32

A measurement of the volume of blood ejected from the heart per minute.

Cardiac output

33

Referring to a slowing of the heart rate.

Cardioinhibitory

34

The A-B-C procedure to artificially return the heartbeat to normal. Establish an airway, provide ventilation to restart breathing, and perform chest compressions to reestablish circulation.

Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR)

35

Cells that are specialized to rapidly spread the electrical signal through the myocardium.

Conduction pathway

36

The arteries that supply the heart with oxygenated blood.

Coronary arteries

37

An outlet that drains the five coronary veins into the right atrium.

Coronary sinus

38

The time it takes in between ventricular contractions for ventricular filling to occur; the phase during which the heart muscle relaxes.

Diastole

39

The innermost of the three layers of the heart wall.

Endocardium

40

The outermost of the three layers of the heart wall.

Epicardium

41

The number of beats per minute.

Heart rate

42

A venous system draining the intestines that leads to a second set of capillaries in the liver.

Hepatic portal system

43

The cavity in a blood vessel through which blood flows.

Lumen

44

The middle of the three layers forming the wall of the heart; the muscular wall of the heart.

Myocardium

45

The concentration of hydrogen ion, used as a scale to denote acidity or alkalinity.

PH scale

46

The circulation of blood through the lungs.

Pulmonary circulation

47

A valve that divides the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery.

Pulmonary valve

48

Veins that return oxygenated blood from the lungs to the left atrium.

Pulmonary veins

49

A type of fiber that stimulates the contraction of the myocardium.

Purkinje fibers

50

The pacemaker tissue of the heart; an impulse-generating tissue.

Sinoatrial node (SA)

51

The amount of blood that is pumped out of one ventricle as a result of one contraction of the cardiac muscle.

Stroke volume

52

A nerve or substance that causes a blood vessel to constrict.

Vasoconstrictor

53

A nerve or substance that causes a blood vessel to dilate.

Vasodilator

54

A vessel that carries blood toward the heart.

Vein

55

The chamber of the heart responsible for pumping the blood.

Ventricle

56

A tiny vessel that collectively forms veins.

Venule

57

A life-threatening allergic reaction resulting in difficulty breathing and low blood pressure.

Anaphylactic shock

58

A deficiency of red blood cells that results in too little oxygen reaching tissues and organs.

Anemia

59

A blood-filled, pulsing sac formed by the dilation of the wall of an artery or vein.

Aneurysm

60

Chest pain resulting from inadequate oxygen reaching the heart muscle, characterized by a "squeezing" feeling in the middle of the chest; usually caused by atherosclerosis.

Angina

61

A total lack of oxygen in the tissues.

Anoxia

62

A condition resulting from the bone marrow producing too few red and white blood cells; too little oxygen reaches the organs and tissues; the usual causes are drugs, radiation, and/or cancer.

Aplastic anemia

63

An irregular heartbeat.

Arrhythmia

64

A general term for hardening or calcification of the arteries.

Arteriosclerosis

65

A progressive narrowing and hardening of the walls of the arteries caused by fatty deposits that build on the inner walls of the arteries and interfere with blood flow.

Atherosclerosis

66

A decrease in red and white blood cells and platelets, leading to anemia, increased risk for infections, and excess bleeding.

Bone marrow suppression

67

An unusual slowness of the heartbeat.

Bradycardia

68

A complete shutdown of the heart's pumping action, probably caused by a heart attack, respiratory arrest, electrical shock, extreme cold, blood loss, drug overdose, or severe allergic reaction.

Cardiac arrest

69

Inadequate oxygen delivery to the tissues caused by heart failure, causing depression of all bodily functions.

Cardiogenic shock

70

A birth defect that results in the aorta being too narrow for sufficient blood transport.

Coarctation of the aorta

71

An insufficient pumping action of the heart that leads to an accumulation of fluid in the lungs, causing shortness of breath and swelling of the lower extremities.

Congestive heart failure

72

A narrowing of the arteries that prevents adequate blood flow to the heart, ultimately resulting in a heart attack.

Coronary artery disease

73

A blue tint to the skin, nails, or mucous membranes resulting from a lack of oxygen in the arterial blood.

Cyanosis

74

Blood clots in the veins of the inner thigh or leg that have the potential to break off and go into the lungs, causing respiratory distress or failure.

Deep vein thrombosis

75

Swelling caused by abnormal accumulation of fluid in the extracellular space.

Edema

76

A blood clot that forms in the vessel in one part of the body and travels to another part.

Embolus

77

Tissue death from a lack of oxygen or nutrients, resulting in bacterial infection and putrefaction.

Gangrene

78

The delay or complete block of electrical impulses in the heart.

Heart block

79

An anemia resulting from red cells that survive an abnormally short time.

Hemolytic anemia

80

A genetic condition characterized by the absence of clotting factors in the blood.

Hemophilia

81

Anemia resulting from a loss of blood.

Hemorrhagic anemia

82

A painful swelling varicosity around the opening of the anus.

Hemorrhoid

83

Persistently high blood pressure.

Hypertension

84

Abnormally low blood pressure.

Hypotension

85

Abnormally low levels of plasma in the blood, resulting in the inability to maintain proper blood pressure and tissue function, and profound physical depression of the entire body.

Hypovolemic shock

86

A decrease of oxygen to an area even though there may be adequate blood flow.

Hypoxia

87

A malignancy of the blood-forming tissue, causing a seriously abnormal increase of leukocytes (white blood cells) in the tissue.

Leukemia

88

A floppy bicuspid valve that is working incorrectly, usually causes no symptoms.

Mitral valve proplapse

89

An irreversible injury to the heart muscle; commonly known as a heart attack.

Myocardial infarction

90

Abnormal heart function caused by a lack of sufficient oxygen to the heart muscle; may lead to electrical arrhythmias, mechanical dysfunction of the heart, angina, or myocardial infarction.

Myocardial ischemia

91

An abnormal heart sound most often caused by heart valves not functioning correctly.

Murmur

92

Cell death caused by disease or injury; may progress to include tissue and organ damage.

Necrosis

93

Anemia caused by a deficiency of iron, folic acid, vitamins, or proteins necessary to build red blood cells.

Nutritional anemia

94

A birth defect causing the normal channel between the aorta and the pulmonary artery to fail to close.

Patent ductus arteriosus

95

An inflammation of the pericardium.

Pericarditis

96

An anemia that results from an insufficient number of red blood cells caused by the lack of vitamin B12 in the body.

Pernicious anemia

97

The inflammation of a vein.

Phlebitis

98

Blood vessel spasms in the fingers and toe, resulting in pallor (discoloration); indicative of a lack of circulation.

Raynaud disease

99

A birth defect involving a hole in the wall between the upper chambers of the heart.

Septal defect

100

The presence of bacteria in the blood.

Septicemia

101

A frequently fatal type of shock that often accompanies burns or traumatic abdominal wounds resulting from endotoxins (toxin-like cells that bind to bacteria) released by the infecting bacteria.

Septic shock

102

A type of blood disease common in African Americans and others who originate in areas where malaria is common.

Sickle cell anemia

103

An excessively rapid heartbeat, usually classified as more than 100 beats per minute.

Tachycardia

104

A congenital birth defect in which the aorta is on the wrong side; the most serious of several heart conditions occurring together and resulting in a "blue baby" from lack of oxygen.

Tetralogy of Fallot

105

An inflammation of a vein with the potential for blood clotting.

Thrombophlebitis

106

An abnormal swelling of the veins of the legs.

Varicose veins