Flashcards in 14 - The Cardiovascular System Deck (107)
The study of the heart and the circulatory system and it's diseases and disorders.
What are the functions of blood?
Transport gases, nutrients, and hormones throughout the body tissues; remove waste products from the tissues; regulate the body's pH; regulate the amounts of fluid present in the tissues; assist in regulating body temperature; and protect against pathogens.
What percent is the plasma in the blood?
Plasma is composed of what percent of water?
Regulates the blood pressure by functioning like a sponge to keep water in the vascular compartment to maintain plasma volume.
Helps fight infection and transport a variety of substances.
Causes blood to clot.
What percentage of blood is red blood cells?
Another term for red blood cells.
Another term for white blood cells.
Cell fragments that contribute to blood clotting.
The process of blood clotting.
Another term for blood clot.
A blood clot that breaks free and moves through the vessel.
The blood types depend on the presence or absence of what?
The major vein draining the thorax and the head, ending at the right atrium.
Superior vena cava
A large venous trunk draining the lower extremities and the abdominopelvic region.
Inferior vena cava
The only veins that carries oxygenated blood from the lungs to the left atrium.
A measurement of the volume of blood ejected from the heart per minute.
The contraction phase of the cardiac cycle.
A contraction of the atrium.
The pacemaker of the heart; it is the impulse-generating tissue that normally dictates heart rate.
Sinoatrial node (SA)
The largest artery in the body; it originates at the heart and branches into the extremities, the neck, and all the major organs; supplies oxygenated blood throughout the body.
A heart valve that divides the left ventricle from the aorta.
A vessel that carries blood away from the heart.
A structure located between the atria and the ventricles that conducts electrical impulses from the atria to the ventricles.
Atrioventricular node (AV)
One of the two upper (receiving) chambers of the heart.
A pressure receptor on the inside walls of some arteries that is sensitive to stretching of the walls occurring from an increase in pressure.
The heart valve that divides the left atrium from the left ventricle. It has two flaps; also known as the mitral valve.
A group of specialized cells that rapidly conduct electrical impulses down into the ventricles.
The smallest blood vessel that contains oxygenated blood.
The complete round of circulation from the time one event in the heart occurs until the instant when the same event occurs again.
A measurement of the volume of blood ejected from the heart per minute.
Referring to a slowing of the heart rate.
The A-B-C procedure to artificially return the heartbeat to normal. Establish an airway, provide ventilation to restart breathing, and perform chest compressions to reestablish circulation.
Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR)
Cells that are specialized to rapidly spread the electrical signal through the myocardium.
The arteries that supply the heart with oxygenated blood.
An outlet that drains the five coronary veins into the right atrium.
The time it takes in between ventricular contractions for ventricular filling to occur; the phase during which the heart muscle relaxes.
The innermost of the three layers of the heart wall.
The outermost of the three layers of the heart wall.
The number of beats per minute.
A venous system draining the intestines that leads to a second set of capillaries in the liver.
Hepatic portal system
The cavity in a blood vessel through which blood flows.
The middle of the three layers forming the wall of the heart; the muscular wall of the heart.
The concentration of hydrogen ion, used as a scale to denote acidity or alkalinity.
The circulation of blood through the lungs.
A valve that divides the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery.
Veins that return oxygenated blood from the lungs to the left atrium.
A type of fiber that stimulates the contraction of the myocardium.
The pacemaker tissue of the heart; an impulse-generating tissue.
Sinoatrial node (SA)
The amount of blood that is pumped out of one ventricle as a result of one contraction of the cardiac muscle.
A nerve or substance that causes a blood vessel to constrict.
A nerve or substance that causes a blood vessel to dilate.
A vessel that carries blood toward the heart.
The chamber of the heart responsible for pumping the blood.
A tiny vessel that collectively forms veins.
A life-threatening allergic reaction resulting in difficulty breathing and low blood pressure.
A deficiency of red blood cells that results in too little oxygen reaching tissues and organs.
A blood-filled, pulsing sac formed by the dilation of the wall of an artery or vein.
Chest pain resulting from inadequate oxygen reaching the heart muscle, characterized by a "squeezing" feeling in the middle of the chest; usually caused by atherosclerosis.
A total lack of oxygen in the tissues.
A condition resulting from the bone marrow producing too few red and white blood cells; too little oxygen reaches the organs and tissues; the usual causes are drugs, radiation, and/or cancer.
An irregular heartbeat.
A general term for hardening or calcification of the arteries.
A progressive narrowing and hardening of the walls of the arteries caused by fatty deposits that build on the inner walls of the arteries and interfere with blood flow.
A decrease in red and white blood cells and platelets, leading to anemia, increased risk for infections, and excess bleeding.
Bone marrow suppression
An unusual slowness of the heartbeat.
A complete shutdown of the heart's pumping action, probably caused by a heart attack, respiratory arrest, electrical shock, extreme cold, blood loss, drug overdose, or severe allergic reaction.
Inadequate oxygen delivery to the tissues caused by heart failure, causing depression of all bodily functions.
A birth defect that results in the aorta being too narrow for sufficient blood transport.
Coarctation of the aorta
An insufficient pumping action of the heart that leads to an accumulation of fluid in the lungs, causing shortness of breath and swelling of the lower extremities.
Congestive heart failure
A narrowing of the arteries that prevents adequate blood flow to the heart, ultimately resulting in a heart attack.
Coronary artery disease
A blue tint to the skin, nails, or mucous membranes resulting from a lack of oxygen in the arterial blood.
Blood clots in the veins of the inner thigh or leg that have the potential to break off and go into the lungs, causing respiratory distress or failure.
Deep vein thrombosis
Swelling caused by abnormal accumulation of fluid in the extracellular space.
A blood clot that forms in the vessel in one part of the body and travels to another part.
Tissue death from a lack of oxygen or nutrients, resulting in bacterial infection and putrefaction.
The delay or complete block of electrical impulses in the heart.
An anemia resulting from red cells that survive an abnormally short time.
A genetic condition characterized by the absence of clotting factors in the blood.
Anemia resulting from a loss of blood.
A painful swelling varicosity around the opening of the anus.
Persistently high blood pressure.
Abnormally low blood pressure.
Abnormally low levels of plasma in the blood, resulting in the inability to maintain proper blood pressure and tissue function, and profound physical depression of the entire body.
A decrease of oxygen to an area even though there may be adequate blood flow.
A malignancy of the blood-forming tissue, causing a seriously abnormal increase of leukocytes (white blood cells) in the tissue.
A floppy bicuspid valve that is working incorrectly, usually causes no symptoms.
Mitral valve proplapse
An irreversible injury to the heart muscle; commonly known as a heart attack.
Abnormal heart function caused by a lack of sufficient oxygen to the heart muscle; may lead to electrical arrhythmias, mechanical dysfunction of the heart, angina, or myocardial infarction.
An abnormal heart sound most often caused by heart valves not functioning correctly.
Cell death caused by disease or injury; may progress to include tissue and organ damage.
Anemia caused by a deficiency of iron, folic acid, vitamins, or proteins necessary to build red blood cells.
A birth defect causing the normal channel between the aorta and the pulmonary artery to fail to close.
Patent ductus arteriosus
An inflammation of the pericardium.
An anemia that results from an insufficient number of red blood cells caused by the lack of vitamin B12 in the body.
The inflammation of a vein.
Blood vessel spasms in the fingers and toe, resulting in pallor (discoloration); indicative of a lack of circulation.
A birth defect involving a hole in the wall between the upper chambers of the heart.
The presence of bacteria in the blood.
A frequently fatal type of shock that often accompanies burns or traumatic abdominal wounds resulting from endotoxins (toxin-like cells that bind to bacteria) released by the infecting bacteria.
A type of blood disease common in African Americans and others who originate in areas where malaria is common.
Sickle cell anemia
An excessively rapid heartbeat, usually classified as more than 100 beats per minute.
A congenital birth defect in which the aorta is on the wrong side; the most serious of several heart conditions occurring together and resulting in a "blue baby" from lack of oxygen.
Tetralogy of Fallot
An inflammation of a vein with the potential for blood clotting.