11 - Brain and Spinal Cord Flashcards Preview

National Exam > 11 - Brain and Spinal Cord > Flashcards

Flashcards in 11 - Brain and Spinal Cord Deck (109):
1

It is estimated that the human brain contains ____ neurons.

Approximately 100 billion

2

Intelligence, reasoning and emotion are facilitated in the ____ area of the brain.

Association

3

What area of the brain interpets speech?

Wernicke

4

There are ___ pairs of nerves arising from the spinal cord.

31

5

The meniges include

Spinal and cranial meninges

6

Past sensory experiences are stored in the ______

Somatosensory association area

7

The part of the brain associated with long-term memory is the ______

Hippocampus

8

Melatonin and serotonin are produced in the _____

Pineal gland

9

The protective layer that keeps most substances from penetrating through to the brain from the blood is the _____

BBB

10

The long tubules extending from the arachnoid and pia mater that act as one-way valves for the cerebrospinal fluid are the ______

Arachnoid villi

11

Respiratory functions are regulated in the _____

Cerebellum

12

The CIA stands for _____

Common intergrative area

13

The spinal cord extends ______

From the medulla oblongata to the second lumbar vertebra

14

The ____ controls higher intelligence and reasoning.

Cerebrum

15

The ___ is a small, almond-shaped structure.

Amygdala

16

What are the four main parts of the brain?

Brain stem
Cerebellum
Diencephalon
Cerebrum

17

Which part of the brain consists of the medulla oblongata, the midbrain, and the pons?

Brain stem

18

What part of the brain relays information about sensation and motion and houses the thalamus, the hypothalamus, the subthalamus, and the epithalamus?

Diencephalon

19

What area of the brain includes the primary visual, auditory, gustatory and olfactory areas?

Sensory area

20

The primary somatosensory area is located in which brain lobe?

Parietal

21

Which area of the brain receives impulses that convey visual information and processes it into the images we see?

Visual area

22

What area of the brain receives impulses that help us interpret sound?

Auditory area

23

What area of the brain receives information for taste.

Gustatory area

24

What part of the brain receives information for the sense of smell?

Olfactory area

25

Which lobe of the brain contains the auditory and receptive areas?

Temporal lobe

26

Which lobe of the brain is the site of visual interpretation?

Occipital lobe

27

What lobe is the primary motor area located?

Frontal lobe

28

The outer portion of the brain where thought processes take place.

Cerebral cortex

29

What association area interprets and integrates sensory information that comes into the body.

Somatosensory association area

30

What association area of the brain interprets speech through the recognition of spoken words?

Wernicke area

31

What area of the brain receives impulses from all the areas and assimilates what it receives?

Common integrative area (CIA)

32

What area of the brain controls learned, intentional movements?

Premotor area

33

What area of the brain controls voluntary scanning movements of the eyes, such as when you are reading?

Frontal eye field area

34

What system is a collection of structures in the brain located in a horseshoe-like rim of the vortices surrounding the junction between the diencephalon and each cerebral hemisphere.

Limbic system

35

Which cranial nerve is responsible for the sensation of scent?

Offactory nerve (I )

36

What cranial nerve is responsible for the sensation of vision?

Optic nerve (II)

37

What cranial nerve is responsible for eye and eyelid movements; control of pupil size?

Oculomotor nerve (III)

38

Which cranial nerve is responsible for eye movements?

Trochlear nerve (IV)

39

What cranial nerve is responsible for the sensation of touch to the face; movement of chewing muscles?

Trigeminal nerves (V)

40

What cranial nerve is responsible for eye movement?

Abducens nerve (VI)

41

What cranial nerve is responsible for movement of muscles of facial expression; sensation of taste in front of tongue?

Facial nerve (VII)

42

What cranial nerve is responsible for sensations of hearing and balance?

Auditory-vestibular nerve (VIII)

43

What cranial nerve is responsible for movement of throat muscles; control of the salivary glands; sensation of taste in back of tongue; detection of blood pressure changes?

Glossopharyngeal nerve (IX)

44

What cranial nerve is responsible for control of the heart, lungs, and abdominal organs; sensation of pain associated with internal organs; movement of throat muscles?

Vagus nerve (X)

45

Which cranial nerve is responsible for movement of throat and neck muscles?

Spinal accessory (XI)

46

Which cranial nerve is responsible for movement of tongue?

Hypoglossal (XII)

47

Three connective tissue layers or membranes that cover the entire brain and spinal cord.

Meninges

48

The outermost layer of the meninges.

Dura mater

49

The space between the dura mater and the vertebrae that is a fatty cushioned area.

Epidural space

50

The middle layer of the meninges.

Arachnoid

51

The layer between the dura mater and the arachnoid.

Subdural space

52

The intermost layer of the meninges.

Pia mater

53

The area between the arachnoid and the pia mater.

Subarachnoid space

54

The pia mater thickens into triangular processes called ________

Denticulate ligaments

55

A small, almond-shaped brain structure that arouses nonverbal expressions of negative emotions, such as sweaty palms, dry mouth, and tense facial expressions.

Amygdala

56

Long tubules extending from the arachnoid that serve as the one-way valves for cerebrospinal fluid to exit the brain and enter the bloodstream.

Arachnoid villi

57

Brain fibers in the cerebral cortex that are involved in processing but not in the strict sense of motor or sensory.

Association fibers

58

Paired clusters of cell bodies that make up the central grey matter in each cerebral hemisphere; they work together with the cerebral cortex to refine movements, feelings and thoughts.

Basal ganglia

59

A protective layer of blood vessels and glial cells that keeps most substances from penetrating through to the brain from the bloodstream.

Blood-brain barrier (BBB)

60

The lowest part of the brain; refers collectively to the medulla oblongata, the midbrain and the pons.

Brainstem

61

The root of all nerves that occur below L1; the lower end of the spinal cord.

Cauda equina

62

A cavity that is the location of the spinal cord.

Central canal

63

Part of the back brain, primarily concerned with movement, muscle tone and balance.

Cerebellum

64

A canal in the midbrain that connects the third and fourth ventricles.

Cerebral aqueduct

65

The outer portion of the brain where thought processes take place.

Cerebral cortex

66

A clear, colorless fluid, composed mostly of glucose and protein, that surrounds the brain and spinal cord and fills the ventricles of the brain and the central canal of the spinal cord; provides protection and nutrients.

Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)

67

The largest and most forward (anterior) portion of the brain; functions include higher cognitive functions.

Cerebrum

68

The dorsal posterior section of the diencephalon.

Epithalamus

69

A short process of the dura mater extending from the occipital crest.

Falx cerebelli

70

A fold of the dura mater located between the two cerebral hemispheres in the longitudinal fissure (deep fold).

Falx cerebri

71

One of the rounded ridges associated with the surface of the cerebrum.

Gyrus

72

The part of the brain thought to be associated with long-term memory.

Hippocampus

73

The part of the brain that secretes chemicals that help regulate body temperature, thirst, hunger, water balance, and sexual function; also closely connected with emotional activity and sleep; functions as the center for the integration of hormonal and autonomic nervous activity.

Hypothalamus

74

A short, slit-like passage that connects the third ventricle area of the brain to the lateral ventricles.

Interventricular foramina

75

A brain area consisting of the amygdala, the hypothalamus, and other structures that affect the endocrine system and autonomic motor system.

Limbic system

76

An expanded region of the spinal cord that starts at T10 and is thickest at the last thoracic vertebra.

Lumbar enlargement

77

The lowest division of the brainstem, immediately above the spinal cord; involved in cardiac and respiratory functions.

Medulla oblongata

78

The midbrain

Mesencephalon

79

The egg-shaped body from which the offactory (smell) nerves extend.

Offactory bulb

80

An olive-shaped prominence on either side of the medulla oblongata.

Olive

81

A small, flat gland that produces melatonin and serotonin.

Pineal gland

82

A network of nerves.

Plexus

83

One of the structures located in the lower brainstem just above the spinal cord; acts as a major pathway for motor and sensory information between the body and higher-level brain functioning.

Pons

84

The sensory root of a spinal nerve.

Posterior root

85

A groove on the surface of the cerebrum, lying between adjacent gyri.

Sulcus

86

A fold of the dura mater that separates the cerebrum from the cerebellum.

Tentorium cerebelli

87

Two large ovoid masses composed mostly of grey matter, situated on either side of the third ventricle.

Thalamus

88

A hollow space in the central brain (also applies to a hollow space in other organs).

Ventricle

89

The most serious type of brain tumor, a fast growing tumor that metastasizes or spreads, invading surrounding tissue and destroying healthy cells in its path.

Glioma

90

A tumor that spreads, invading surrounding tissue and destroying healthy cells in its path.

Metastasize

91

A disease which mainly affects children of Eastern European Jewish descent, which causes the brain to swell and damage itself against the insides of the skull.

Tay-Sachs disease

92

An inherited metabolic disorder caused by the absence of a necessary enzyme.

Phenylketonuria (PKU)

93

Depression that lasts more than 2 weeks and involves extreme fatigue, change of habits and personality, and possible suicidal thoughts.

Clinical depression

94

Erratic behavior that is the opposite of depression. A manic person talks fast (too fast for their thinking), has unusual enthusiasm and often euphoric behavior and may be delusional in some cases.

Mania

95

A condition in which blood in the brain is shunted directly from the arteries to the veins, bypassing the capillaries, resulting in an area that lacks oxygen. Symptoms (headaches, seizures) appear after age 30.

Arteriovenous malformation

96

A brain disorder of unknown origin causing developmental problems in children in the areas of speech, behavior and social skills.

Autism

97

A pus-filled cavity caused by a bacterial infection.

Brain abscess

98

A brain injury.

Cerebral trauma

99

A prolonged state of deep unconscious as a result of trauma or illness.

Coma

100

An acute mental disorder that affects the ability to reason and speech impairment and other cerebral dysfunctions; organic in cause and often reversible.

Delirium

101

The cumulative effects of being hit on the head numerous times; also known as the "punch drunk" and "boxers affliction".

Dementia pugilistica

102

Mental retardation caused by possession of an extra chromosome 21.

Down syndrome

103

Abnormally increased cerebral spinal fluid surrounding the brain.

Hydrocephalus

104

An inability to sleep.

Insomnia

105

Abnormal drowsiness or stupor.

Lethargy

106

A sleep disorder characterized by an inability to stay awake; consists of sudden bouts of sleeping at inappropriate times and inability to sleep at night.

Narcolepsy

107

A temporary interruption in breathing that occurs during sleep.

Sleep apnea

108

A birth defect in which the vertebral arch (the posterior projection from the body of the vertebra) fails to close around the spinal cord and meninges.

Spina bifida

109

Dysfunctions that can include mood disturbances, sleep disturbances, sexual dysfunctions, withdrawal delirium, intoxification, and dementia, caused by drug abuse or side effects of medications or toxic exposure.

Substance-related disorders