Flashcards in 11 - Brain and Spinal Cord Deck (109)
It is estimated that the human brain contains ____ neurons.
Approximately 100 billion
Intelligence, reasoning and emotion are facilitated in the ____ area of the brain.
What area of the brain interpets speech?
There are ___ pairs of nerves arising from the spinal cord.
The meniges include
Spinal and cranial meninges
Past sensory experiences are stored in the ______
Somatosensory association area
The part of the brain associated with long-term memory is the ______
Melatonin and serotonin are produced in the _____
The protective layer that keeps most substances from penetrating through to the brain from the blood is the _____
The long tubules extending from the arachnoid and pia mater that act as one-way valves for the cerebrospinal fluid are the ______
Respiratory functions are regulated in the _____
The CIA stands for _____
Common intergrative area
The spinal cord extends ______
From the medulla oblongata to the second lumbar vertebra
The ____ controls higher intelligence and reasoning.
The ___ is a small, almond-shaped structure.
What are the four main parts of the brain?
Which part of the brain consists of the medulla oblongata, the midbrain, and the pons?
What part of the brain relays information about sensation and motion and houses the thalamus, the hypothalamus, the subthalamus, and the epithalamus?
What area of the brain includes the primary visual, auditory, gustatory and olfactory areas?
The primary somatosensory area is located in which brain lobe?
Which area of the brain receives impulses that convey visual information and processes it into the images we see?
What area of the brain receives impulses that help us interpret sound?
What area of the brain receives information for taste.
What part of the brain receives information for the sense of smell?
Which lobe of the brain contains the auditory and receptive areas?
Which lobe of the brain is the site of visual interpretation?
What lobe is the primary motor area located?
The outer portion of the brain where thought processes take place.
What association area interprets and integrates sensory information that comes into the body.
Somatosensory association area
What association area of the brain interprets speech through the recognition of spoken words?
What area of the brain receives impulses from all the areas and assimilates what it receives?
Common integrative area (CIA)
What area of the brain controls learned, intentional movements?
What area of the brain controls voluntary scanning movements of the eyes, such as when you are reading?
Frontal eye field area
What system is a collection of structures in the brain located in a horseshoe-like rim of the vortices surrounding the junction between the diencephalon and each cerebral hemisphere.
Which cranial nerve is responsible for the sensation of scent?
Offactory nerve (I )
What cranial nerve is responsible for the sensation of vision?
Optic nerve (II)
What cranial nerve is responsible for eye and eyelid movements; control of pupil size?
Oculomotor nerve (III)
Which cranial nerve is responsible for eye movements?
Trochlear nerve (IV)
What cranial nerve is responsible for the sensation of touch to the face; movement of chewing muscles?
Trigeminal nerves (V)
What cranial nerve is responsible for eye movement?
Abducens nerve (VI)
What cranial nerve is responsible for movement of muscles of facial expression; sensation of taste in front of tongue?
Facial nerve (VII)
What cranial nerve is responsible for sensations of hearing and balance?
Auditory-vestibular nerve (VIII)
What cranial nerve is responsible for movement of throat muscles; control of the salivary glands; sensation of taste in back of tongue; detection of blood pressure changes?
Glossopharyngeal nerve (IX)
What cranial nerve is responsible for control of the heart, lungs, and abdominal organs; sensation of pain associated with internal organs; movement of throat muscles?
Vagus nerve (X)
Which cranial nerve is responsible for movement of throat and neck muscles?
Spinal accessory (XI)
Which cranial nerve is responsible for movement of tongue?
Three connective tissue layers or membranes that cover the entire brain and spinal cord.
The outermost layer of the meninges.
The space between the dura mater and the vertebrae that is a fatty cushioned area.
The middle layer of the meninges.
The layer between the dura mater and the arachnoid.
The intermost layer of the meninges.
The area between the arachnoid and the pia mater.
The pia mater thickens into triangular processes called ________
A small, almond-shaped brain structure that arouses nonverbal expressions of negative emotions, such as sweaty palms, dry mouth, and tense facial expressions.
Long tubules extending from the arachnoid that serve as the one-way valves for cerebrospinal fluid to exit the brain and enter the bloodstream.
Brain fibers in the cerebral cortex that are involved in processing but not in the strict sense of motor or sensory.
Paired clusters of cell bodies that make up the central grey matter in each cerebral hemisphere; they work together with the cerebral cortex to refine movements, feelings and thoughts.
A protective layer of blood vessels and glial cells that keeps most substances from penetrating through to the brain from the bloodstream.
Blood-brain barrier (BBB)
The lowest part of the brain; refers collectively to the medulla oblongata, the midbrain and the pons.
The root of all nerves that occur below L1; the lower end of the spinal cord.
A cavity that is the location of the spinal cord.
Part of the back brain, primarily concerned with movement, muscle tone and balance.
A canal in the midbrain that connects the third and fourth ventricles.
The outer portion of the brain where thought processes take place.
A clear, colorless fluid, composed mostly of glucose and protein, that surrounds the brain and spinal cord and fills the ventricles of the brain and the central canal of the spinal cord; provides protection and nutrients.
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)
The largest and most forward (anterior) portion of the brain; functions include higher cognitive functions.
The dorsal posterior section of the diencephalon.
A short process of the dura mater extending from the occipital crest.
A fold of the dura mater located between the two cerebral hemispheres in the longitudinal fissure (deep fold).
One of the rounded ridges associated with the surface of the cerebrum.
The part of the brain thought to be associated with long-term memory.
The part of the brain that secretes chemicals that help regulate body temperature, thirst, hunger, water balance, and sexual function; also closely connected with emotional activity and sleep; functions as the center for the integration of hormonal and autonomic nervous activity.
A short, slit-like passage that connects the third ventricle area of the brain to the lateral ventricles.
A brain area consisting of the amygdala, the hypothalamus, and other structures that affect the endocrine system and autonomic motor system.
An expanded region of the spinal cord that starts at T10 and is thickest at the last thoracic vertebra.
The lowest division of the brainstem, immediately above the spinal cord; involved in cardiac and respiratory functions.
The egg-shaped body from which the offactory (smell) nerves extend.
An olive-shaped prominence on either side of the medulla oblongata.
A small, flat gland that produces melatonin and serotonin.
A network of nerves.
One of the structures located in the lower brainstem just above the spinal cord; acts as a major pathway for motor and sensory information between the body and higher-level brain functioning.
The sensory root of a spinal nerve.
A groove on the surface of the cerebrum, lying between adjacent gyri.
A fold of the dura mater that separates the cerebrum from the cerebellum.
Two large ovoid masses composed mostly of grey matter, situated on either side of the third ventricle.
A hollow space in the central brain (also applies to a hollow space in other organs).
The most serious type of brain tumor, a fast growing tumor that metastasizes or spreads, invading surrounding tissue and destroying healthy cells in its path.
A tumor that spreads, invading surrounding tissue and destroying healthy cells in its path.
A disease which mainly affects children of Eastern European Jewish descent, which causes the brain to swell and damage itself against the insides of the skull.
An inherited metabolic disorder caused by the absence of a necessary enzyme.
Depression that lasts more than 2 weeks and involves extreme fatigue, change of habits and personality, and possible suicidal thoughts.
Erratic behavior that is the opposite of depression. A manic person talks fast (too fast for their thinking), has unusual enthusiasm and often euphoric behavior and may be delusional in some cases.
A condition in which blood in the brain is shunted directly from the arteries to the veins, bypassing the capillaries, resulting in an area that lacks oxygen. Symptoms (headaches, seizures) appear after age 30.
A brain disorder of unknown origin causing developmental problems in children in the areas of speech, behavior and social skills.
A pus-filled cavity caused by a bacterial infection.
A brain injury.
A prolonged state of deep unconscious as a result of trauma or illness.
An acute mental disorder that affects the ability to reason and speech impairment and other cerebral dysfunctions; organic in cause and often reversible.
The cumulative effects of being hit on the head numerous times; also known as the "punch drunk" and "boxers affliction".
Mental retardation caused by possession of an extra chromosome 21.
Abnormally increased cerebral spinal fluid surrounding the brain.
An inability to sleep.
Abnormal drowsiness or stupor.
A sleep disorder characterized by an inability to stay awake; consists of sudden bouts of sleeping at inappropriate times and inability to sleep at night.
A temporary interruption in breathing that occurs during sleep.
A birth defect in which the vertebral arch (the posterior projection from the body of the vertebra) fails to close around the spinal cord and meninges.