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Flashcards in 9 - Muscular System Deck (88):
1

The point where muscle attaches to the moving bone is referred to as the _____

Insertion

2

The connective tissue that binds muscles together is the ______

Fascia

3

Lack of oxygen to the muscle causes _____

Ischemia

4

RICE is the acronym for _____

Rest, ice, compression, elevation

5

The fleshy part of a muscle is the _____

Belly

6

A progressive loss of muscle fibers without any nervous system involvement is caused by _____

Muscular Dystrophy

7

A progressive weakening of the muscle caused by degenerating neurons is ______

Muscular atrophy

8

The study of the muscular system is called _____

Myology

9

The condition in which the tendon sheath is inflamed is called _____

Tenosynovitis

10

The number of muscles in the human body is ____

630

11

____ is a condition also known as wry neck.

Torticollis

12

The only one of the following conditions that could be caused by poisoning would be:
a. Poliomyelitis
b. Anterior compartment syndrome
c. Myositis ossificans
d. Acquired toxic myopathy

Acquired toxic myopathy

13

____ means pear-shaped.

Piriformis

14

Spreading your fingers is an example of _____

Abduction

15

The rotator cuff muscles include ____

Teres minor, subscapularis, supraspinatus, and infraspinatus

16

The study of the muscular system.

Myology

17

Muscles also called striated (striped) are referred to as voluntary muscles because they enable conscious movements.

Skeletal muscles

18

Non striated (striped) muscles that contract involuntarily; they line various internal organs and blood vessels.

Smooth muscles

19

Muscle found only in the heart and is striated (striped) but also contracts involuntarily.

Cardiac muscle

20

The point where the muscle attaches to the stationary bone. It is usually closest to the trunk of the body, or proximal.

Origin

21

The mid-portion of the muscle, or fleshy part between the insertion and origin.

Belly

22

The prime mover that is the main muscle that contracts to perform an action.

Agonist

23

The opposing muscle that stretches and yields to the actions of the agonist.

Antagonist

24

Another term for connective tissue.

Fascia

25

What fascia keeps the muscles separated from the skin?

Superficial fascia

26

Which fascia holds in body temperature and serves as muscle protection.

Adipose fascia

27

Which fascia lines the body walls and related muscles together in addition to carrying blood and lymph vessels?

Deep fascia

28

The outer layer of the muscle that covers the whole muscle.

Epimysium

29

The center layer of the muscle that surrounds muscle fibers that are separated into groups of fascicles.

Perimysium

30

Muscle fibers that are separated into groups of 10 to more than 100.

Fascicles

31

The thin sheet of connective tissue that surrounds the inside of each fascicle and separates the individual muscle fibers.

Endomysium

32

What each individual muscle fiber in composed of.

Myofibrils

33

Cords of thick tissue that serve as the attachments between skeletal muscle and bone.

Tendons

34

A connective tissue that stretches over a broad, flat area, such as on the heel or the top of the head.

Aponeurosis

35

The ability for muscle tissue to respond to stimuli by producing electrical signals.

Electrical excitability

36

The ability for muscle tissue to contract when stimulated by a nerve signal.

Contractility

37

The ability for muscle tissue to stretch without being damaged.

Extensibility

38

The ability for muscle tissue to return to its original shape and length after it has been contracted or extended.

Elasticity

39

A gap between a motor neuron and a muscle fiber where nerve signals are transmitted.

Synapse

40

The three proteins that muscles are made of.

Contractile
Regulatory
Structural

41

What is the synapse known as?

Neuromuscular junction

42

Muscle fibers that are tiny and contract slowly. They are capable of prolonged contraction - for instance, enabling us to stand for hours.

Slow-twitch fibers

43

Muscle fibers that are larger in diameter and can produce the most powerful contractions, but fatigue quickly.

Fast-twitch fibers

44

An alternating pattern of motor units being active and inactive, resulting in keeping the muscle firm without causing any action causes _____

Muscle tone

45

A characteristic of muscle fibers where the stimulus must be strong enough to excite the entire fiber - or none of the muscle will react.

All-or-none response

46

Action where the bone (and muscle) is coming closer to the midline.

Adduction

47

Action where the bone (and muscle) is moving away from the midline.

Abduction

48

Decreasing the angle of a joint.

Flexion

49

Movement turning inward.

Inversion

50

Movement turning upward.

Supination

51

Movement turning downward.

Pronation

52

A muscle that moves bone away from the midline.

Abductor

53

A muscle that moves bone closer to the midline.

Adductor

54

The main muscle that contracts to perform an action; also known as the prime mover.

Agonist

55

The opposing muscle that stretches and yields to the the agonist.

Antagonist

56

Muscle having two heads.

Biceps

57

Shortest muscle.

Brevis

58

A muscle that turns inferiorly or posteriorly.

Pronator

59

A muscle that produces inferior motions.

Depressor

60

A muscle that decreases the angle of a joint.

Flexor

61

A muscle that contracts to stabilize intermediate joints to either help prevent unwanted movements or aid the movement of the agonist.

Synergist

62

Stretching or tearing of a ligament.

Sprain

63

Tearing of a muscle itself and is usually less serious.

Strain

64

A general term that refers to any disease of the muscle.

Myopathy

65

A progressive weakening of the muscle caused by degenerating neurons.

Muscular atrophy

66

A collective term for diseases that cause a progressive loss of muscle fibers without any nervous system involvement.

Muscular dystrophy

67

A benign tumor composed of muscle tissue.

Myoma

68

Inflammation of the muscle.

Myositis

69

When muscle tissue accumulates calcium deposits and begins to harden.

Myositis ossificans

70

A permanent shortening of a muscle

Contracture

71

A permanent shortening of a muscle caused by damaged or destroyed muscle fibers being replaced by scar tissue, usually caused by a lack of circulation from some outside interference such as cast or elastic bandage that is too tight.

Volkmann contracture

72

A painless thickening of the fascia in the palm of the hand that results in the inability to move the digits.

Dupuytren contracture

73

Tender areas of hyperirritability that cause sensations to be referred to an area outside of the specific tenderness.

Trigger points

74

Damage to muscle caused by environmental toxins or by a failure of the body to metabolize certain nutrients; not a genetic condition.

Acquired metabolic and toxic myopathies

75

Another term for shin splints.

Anterior compartment syndrome

76

A chronic condition characterized by severe chronic fatigue of six months or longer duration. Linked to the Epstein-Barr virus.

Chronic fatigue syndrome

77

An unusually painful muscle contraction.

Cramp/spasm

78

Muscles that are weak, lax or soft

Flaccidity

79

A protrusion of an organ or other tissue through an abnormal opening in the wall of the cavity normally containing it, or in the soft tissue.

Hernia

80

Inflammation of the plantar fascia on the sole of the foot; very painful.

Plantar fasciitis

81

An acute viral disease that can end in permanent muscle atrophy and contracture.

Poliomyelitis

82

A neuromuscular syndrome that may develop years after recovering from polio.

Post-polio syndrome

83

A tear in one of the rotator cuff muscles.

Rotator cuff tear

84

Tenderness, swelling and pain of the anterior leg muscles.

Shin splint

85

A condition characterized by increased muscle tone in which abnormal stretch reflexes intensify muscle resistance to passive movements.

Spasticity

86

Inflammation of tendons and muscle attachments.

Tendinitis

87

Inflammation of the tendon sheath (covering).

Tenosynovitis

88

A contracted state of the cervical muscles, producing a twisted neck and unnatural head position; sometimes referred to as "wry neck".

Torticollis