3 - Anatomy, Physiology and Pathology Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 3 - Anatomy, Physiology and Pathology Deck (117):
1

The study of the structures of the body

Anatomy

2

The study of the functions of the body

Physiology

3

The microscopic study of the structure of cells

Cytology

4

The study of tissue

Histology

5

The study of the structure from egg to adult form

Developmental Anatomy

6

The study of the structures from the time of fertilization through the eighth week of gestation

Embryology

7

The basic unit of life

Cell

8

Cephalad means

Towards the head

9

Antibodies are molecules of ___ involved in the immune response of the body

Proteins

10

Etiology is the study of ______

The cause and origin of disease

11

The condition characterized by swelling, heat, redness, and pain is known as _____

Inflammation

12

In the Western anatomical position, the human body is _____

Standing erect, facing forward, arms at side, palms facing forward.

13

The pericaridal cavity is located within the _____

Thoracic cavity

14

The study of the tissues of the body is referred to as _______

Histology

15

A short, severe episode is referred to as _____

Acute

16

The ability of an organism to cause disease is referred to as ______

Virulence

17

The human body is an ______

Organism

18

The increase in symptoms or severity of a condition is a(n)______

Exacerbation

19

The ____ plane divides the body into upper and lower sections.

Transverse

20

The disease of unknown origin is referred to as _____

Idiopathic

21

Structures that can be studied without the aid of a microscope.

Gross anatomy

22

Study of changes in structures caused by disease.

Pathological anatomy

23

Study of a specific region in the body, such as the head or lower extremities.

Regional anatomy

24

Study of the body through x-rays.

Radiographic anatomy

25

Study of the body through observation and palpation.

Surface anatomy

26

Study of specific body systems.

Systemic anatomy

27

The study of nerves.

Neurophysiology

28

The study of cell function.

Cell physiology

29

The study of the acute responses and long-term adaptions of the body to physical activity or exercise.

Exercise physiology

30

The study of movement.

Kinesiology

31

Groups of similar cells combine to form _________

Tissue

32

A collection of tissues having a specific function.

Organ

33

Organs acting together to perform specific functions.

Organ systems

34

Which cavity holds the digestive organs, liver and spleen?

Abdominal cavity

35

Which cavity describes both the abdominal cavity below the diaphragm and the pelvic cavity?

Abdominopelvic cavity

36

Which cavity houses the urinary bladder, the rectum, and the internal reproductive organs?

Pelvic cavity

37

Which cavity is protected by the rib cage and contains the vital organs, such as the heart and lungs?

Thoracic cavity

38

Which cavity within the thoracic cavity protects the heart?

Pericardial cavity

39

Which cavity describes the combined thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities?

Ventral cavity

40

Which cavity houses the brain and the spinal cavity?

Cranial cavity

41

Which cavity houses the spinal cord?

Spinal cavity

42

Which body system protects the body; regulate body temperature; waste elimination; production of vitamin D; detects sensations such as hot, cold and pain, etc.?

Integumentary system

43

Which body system supports and protects the body; aids movements; houses cells that give rise to blood cells; stores minerals and fats?

Skeletal system

44

Which body system produces body movements, stabilizes posture and produces body heat?

Muscular system

45

Which body system regulates body activities through nerve impulses by detecting changes in body's internal and/or external environment and reacting by causing muscle contractions or glandular secretions?

Nervous system

46

Which body system carries oxygen and nutrients to cells and carbon dioxide and other wastes away from cells; helps regulate acidity, temperature, and water content in bodily fluids; blood components aid immunity and repair of damaged blood vessels?

Cardiovascular system

47

Which body system protects against disease-causing organisms; returns proteins and other substances to blood and carries lipids from GI tract to blood?

Lymphatic system

48

Which body system transfers oxygen from inhaled air to the blood and carbon dioxide from blood to exhaled air; helps regulate pH of body fluids; allows vocal cords to produce sound through air flowing out of lungs?

Respiratory system

49

Which body system regulates the absorption of nutrients by physical and chemical breakdown of food and elimination of waste?

Digestive system

50

Which body system regulates body activities through release of hormones?

Endocrine system

51

Which body system produces, stores and eliminates waste products through urine; regulates blood volume, composition, and mineral balance; aids in red blood cell production?

Urinary system

52

Which body system produces gametes in gonads for reproduction; regulates reproductive and other processes through the release of hormones?

Reproductive system

53

Which directional term is used when it divides the body into anterior and posterior positions?

Frontal plane

54

The frontal plane is also called _______

Coronal plane

55

Which directional term is used when the body is divided into left and right sections?

Sagittal plane

56

Which directional term is used when it divides the body into upper and lower sections?

Transverse plane

57

What is another term for transverse plane?

Horizontal plane

58

What is the direction if it is toward the front or in front of?

Anterior or ventral

59

What direction is toward the tail or lower?

Caudal or inferior

60

What direction is toward the head or upper?

Cephalad

61

What direction is toward the head?

Cranial or superior

62

What direction is far from the surface?

Deep

63

What direction is away from a point of reference or farthest from the trunk?

Distal

64

What direction is toward the back or in back of?

Dorsal or posterior

65

What direction is away from the midline of the body?

Lateral

66

What direction is toward the midline of the body?

Medial

67

What direction is toward or nearest the trunk or point of reference?

Proximal

68

What direction is near the surface?

Superficial

69

What pathology focuses on the study of tissues removed from a dead or living person to diagnose disease or cause of death?

Anatomical pathology

70

What type of pathology is actually a number of subdisciplines that are often referred to as laboratory medicine: chemistry, histology, microbiology and other specialties?

Clinical pathology

71

What is the study of how disease and trauma alter the normal functioning of the body?

Pathophysiology

72

What is an organism that lives in an oxygen environment?

Aerobe

73

What is the ability to walk?

Ambulatory

74

What is an organism that lives in an oxygen-free environment?

Anaerobes

75

What are the irregular structural characteristics of a cell that identify it as a malignant cancer cell?

An aplastic

76

What is an abnormal occurrence, especially in reference to birth defects?

Anomaly

77

A chemical substance derivable from a mold or bacterium that kills microorganisms and cures infections.

Antibiotic

78

A protein produced by the body as part of its defense against foreign bacteria or blood cells.

Antibody

79

The prevention of sepsis by excluding or destroying microorganisms.

Antisepsis

80

A substance that kills or prohibits the growth of microorganisms.

Antiseptic

81

Free from germs.

Asepsis

82

A wasting away or decrease in size of a cell, tissue, organ, or part of the body caused by lack of nourishment, inactivity or loss of nerve supply.

Atrophy

83

A situation in which the body produces an immune response against its own organs or tissues, causing severe inflammation and chronic conditions.

Autoimmunity

84

Mcroorganisms capable of reproduction; some strains cause infection (and some are beneficial).

Bacteria

85

Referring to a tumor, or abnormal growth, that is not cancerous and does not invade nearby tissues or spread to other parts of the body.

Benign

86

Slow developing, recurring.

Chronic

87

Characterized by diminishing capabilities

Degenerative

88

The identification of disease or trauma

Diagnosis

89

An impairment of health that interferes with the body's ability to function normally.

Disease

90

The prevention of sepsis by excluding or destroying microorganisms.

Disinfect

91

Characterizing a disease that exists in a location or group of people all the time.

Endemic

92

A sudden outbreak of disease in numbers much higher than normal.

Epidemic

93

The study of the cause and origin of disease.

Etiology

94

A marked increase in symptoms or severity of disease.

Exacerbation

95

A mold, yeast, or mushroom.

Fungus

96

Genetically passed from parent to child.

Hereditary

97

An increase in the number of cells in an organ or tissue.

Hyperplasia

98

Of unknown origin.

Idiopathic

99

The invasion and growth of microorganisms that may cause cellular injury in tissue.

Infection

100

A protective response from the body in response to infection or injury characterized by swelling, heat, redness and pain.

Inflammation

101

Affecting only one part.

Local

102

Cancerous; a growth with a tendency to invade and destroy nearby tissue and spread to other parts of the body.

Malignant

103

Diseased or sick.

Morbid

104

Any departure, subjective or objective, from a state of physiological or psychological well-being.

Morbidity

105

An abnormal growth of tissue that may be benign or malignant.

Neoplasm

106

An epidemic that affects an expanded demographic area.

Pandemic

107

The origin and development of disease.

Pathogenesis

108

The study of disease.

Pathology

109

The study of how disease and/or trauma alters the normal functioning of the body.

Pathophysiology

110

The evidence of disease as perceived by the doctor.

Signs

111

To destroy bacteria and other microorganisms.

Sterilize

112

The subjective evidence of disease as perceived by the patient.

Symptoms

113

A group of signs or symptoms characteristic of a particular disease or abnormal condition.

Syndrome

114

Affecting the whole body.

Systemic

115

A physical injury or wound caused by an external force of violence, which may cause death or permanent disability. Is also used to describe severe emotional or phychological shock or distress.

Trauma

116

The ability of an organism to cause disease.

Virulence

117

An intracelullar parasite that causes disease.

Virus