Flashcards in 17 - The Digestive System Deck (85)
The process of absorbing substances into cells or across tissues.
Another term for the GI tract (digestive tract)
The terminal opening of the GI tract
The first section of the large intestine, beginning in the lower right quadrant of the abdomen and ending in the upper right quandrant at the transverse colon.
A yellow-green liquid substance secreted by the liver that aids in the absorption of fats; stored in the gall bladder.
Food that has been acted upon by digestive enzymes but has not yet passed into the small intestine.
A duct that transports bile from the liver and gall bladder to the duodenum.
Common bile duct
The duct that connects the common bile duct to the gall bladder.
The fourth segment of the large intestine that connects the transverse colon to the sigmoid colon.
The first segment of the small intestine connecting the pelorus and the jejunum.
The segment of the digestive tract between the pharynx and the stomach.
A ring of striated muscle fibers surrounding the anal opening.
External anal sphincter
The bottom of any hollow organ, such as the stomach.
The organ that stores the bile that is produced in the liver; involved in the absorption of fats.
The liquid secretions of the stomach.
The gums of the mouth.
Part of the peritoneum, the sac that covers most of the intestines.
The entryway to the colon from the small intestine.
The last segment of the small intestine connecting with the large intestine.
The ring of smooth muscle surrounding the internal part of the anal opening.
Internal anal sphincter
The segment of the small intestine connecting the duodenum to the ileum.
The digestive organ that forms and transports waste matter from the rest of the GI tract.
Part of the peritoneum that connects the stomach and liver.
A digestive organ in the upper right quadrant of the abdomen that plays a major role in metabolism, digestion, and elimination.
The process of chewing food.
The membrane that connects the intestine to the abdominal wall.
The fold of the peritoneum that is attached to the colon.
The mucous membrane lining the GI tract
The muscular inner coating of the GI tract.
A small organ that lies behind the stomach and secretes powerful digestive enzymes into the small bowel as well as the hormones that regulate blood sugar (insulin and glucagon).
Salivary glands in front of and inferior to the ear.
Parotid salivary glands
The smooth membrane that lines the abdomen. It folds back over the organs.
The thick muscular valve that allows food to move into the duodenum.
The opening from the stomach to the intestine.
The last segment of the large intestine that joins the sigmoid colon and the anus.
The folds of the gastic mucosa (stomach lining).
The secretions of the salivary glands
Glands that produce saliva to moisten the oral cavity and food; saliva contains antibodies and other substances that protect against infections in the mouth as well as enzymes that aid in the digestion of carbohydrates.
The segment of the colon that connects the descending colon to the rectum.
The tube of the GI tract with three distinct segments (duodenum, jejunum and ileum) that are involved in the absorption of nutrients into the body. In the human adult, it is approximately 22 feet long.
The largest portion of the GI tract, situated between the esophagus and the small intestine. It secretes gastric juices to assist in the breakdown of food.
Salivary glands located under the tongue.
Sublingual salivary glands
Salivary glands located under the jawbone
Submandibular salivary glands
The layer of tissue beneath a mucous membrane.
The hard appendages in the mouth made of dentine and enamel that enable mastication (chewing)
The tear-shaped appendage hanging down in the center of the edge of the soft palate.
Tiny projections on the inner intestine walls that aid in absorption
A contriction in the lower portion of the esophagus caused by unrelaxed sphincter muscles.
The abnormal return of stomach contents back into the esophagus.
Fibrous bands abnormally binding to tissue (such as scar tissue).
An eating disorder characterized by an unrealistic self-image of the body, with a pathological fear of becoming fat, excessive dieting, and emaciation. No loss of appetite occurs until the late stages of the disease; primarily affects girls and young women.
An inflammation of the appendix
"Rumbling" noises in the GI tract, caused by gas moving through the intestines.
An eating disorder characterized by self-induced purging (vomiting and/or diuretic and laxative abuse) after binge eating; strict dieting, fasting, or obsessive exercising to prevent weight gain.
A small, painful crater in the mouth; also called an aphthous ulcer.
An inflammation of the gallbladder
The loss of healthy tissue accompanied by fibrosis and chronic inflammation.
Cirrhosis of the liver
An inflammation of the colon
The surgical construction of an artificial opening of the colon through the abdominal wall as a treatment for serious digestive problems.
Difficulty in eliminating feces
Chronic inflammation of the digestive or GI tract
Overly frequent and loose or fluid evacuations of the large intestine
An inflammation of a sac-like appendage on the inside walls of the large intestine.
Difficulty in swallowing.
An inflammation of the small intestine
A mass in the groin stemming from a looped large intestine that occurs most frequently in overweight females.
A chronic inflammation of the gallbladder, usually accompanied by gallstones.
An inflammation of the stomach
An acute inflammation of the lining of the GI tract
An inflammation of the gums
Indigestion accompanied by a burning sensation.
A generally non-life-threatening disease that is transmitted though contaminated food and drink and causes flu-like symptoms after a 2-week incubation period.
A viral diease, spread by contact with contaminated blood or passed through the placenta from mother to child; a person can be a carrier and be asymptomatic; sever infections are characteristic, as is cirrhosis of the liver.
A viral disease most commonly caused through the transfusion of infected blood; spreading by sexual contact is rare. The signs and symptoms are similar to that of Hepatitis B.
A protusion of an organ through the body wall or into another organ, such as a loop of the large intestine protruding through the abdomen.
A type of hernia in which part of the stomach is protruding through the diaphragm.
Name given to a group of disorders that cause inflammation to the instestines.
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBI)
A chronic condition of the large intestine, characterized by recurrent abdominal cramps and diarrhea, often alternating with periods of constipation; usually attributed to stress.
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)
A yellowing of the skin and the whites of the eyes, caused by a buildup of a bile pigment.
Inadequate nutrition, but not the same thing as starvation. A person could eat three meals per day and still have this.
A queasy feeling in the GI tract or general abdomen, often culminating in vomiting.
Excessive fat in the body.
An ulcer in the esophagus, stomach, or proximal small intestine, caused by gastric juices eating through the mucous membrane.