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Flashcards in 17 - The Digestive System Deck (85):
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The process of absorbing substances into cells or across tissues.

Absorption

1

Another term for the GI tract (digestive tract)

Alimentary canal

2

The terminal opening of the GI tract

Anus

3

The first section of the large intestine, beginning in the lower right quadrant of the abdomen and ending in the upper right quandrant at the transverse colon.

Ascending colon

4

A yellow-green liquid substance secreted by the liver that aids in the absorption of fats; stored in the gall bladder.

Bile

5

Food that has been acted upon by digestive enzymes but has not yet passed into the small intestine.

Chyme

6

A duct that transports bile from the liver and gall bladder to the duodenum.

Common bile duct

7

The duct that connects the common bile duct to the gall bladder.

Cystic duct

8

The fourth segment of the large intestine that connects the transverse colon to the sigmoid colon.

Descending colon

9

The first segment of the small intestine connecting the pelorus and the jejunum.

Duodenum

10

The segment of the digestive tract between the pharynx and the stomach.

Esophagus

11

A ring of striated muscle fibers surrounding the anal opening.

External anal sphincter

12

The bottom of any hollow organ, such as the stomach.

Fundus

13

The organ that stores the bile that is produced in the liver; involved in the absorption of fats.

Gallbladder

14

The liquid secretions of the stomach.

Gastric juice

15

The gums of the mouth.

Gingivae

16

Part of the peritoneum, the sac that covers most of the intestines.

Greater omentum

17

The entryway to the colon from the small intestine.

Ileocecal valve

18

The last segment of the small intestine connecting with the large intestine.

Ileum

19

The ring of smooth muscle surrounding the internal part of the anal opening.

Internal anal sphincter

20

The segment of the small intestine connecting the duodenum to the ileum.

Jejunum

21

The digestive organ that forms and transports waste matter from the rest of the GI tract.

Large intestine

22

Part of the peritoneum that connects the stomach and liver.

Lower omentum

23

A digestive organ in the upper right quadrant of the abdomen that plays a major role in metabolism, digestion, and elimination.

Liver

24

The process of chewing food.

Mastication

25

The membrane that connects the intestine to the abdominal wall.

Mesentery

26

The fold of the peritoneum that is attached to the colon.

Mesocolon

27

The mucous membrane lining the GI tract

Mucosa

28

The muscular inner coating of the GI tract.

Muscularis

29

A small organ that lies behind the stomach and secretes powerful digestive enzymes into the small bowel as well as the hormones that regulate blood sugar (insulin and glucagon).

Pancreas

30

Salivary glands in front of and inferior to the ear.

Parotid salivary glands

31

The smooth membrane that lines the abdomen. It folds back over the organs.

Peritoneum

32

The thick muscular valve that allows food to move into the duodenum.

Pyloric sphincter

33

The opening from the stomach to the intestine.

Pylorus

34

The last segment of the large intestine that joins the sigmoid colon and the anus.

Rectum

35

The folds of the gastic mucosa (stomach lining).

Rugae

36

The secretions of the salivary glands

Saliva

37

Glands that produce saliva to moisten the oral cavity and food; saliva contains antibodies and other substances that protect against infections in the mouth as well as enzymes that aid in the digestion of carbohydrates.

Salivary glands

38

The segment of the colon that connects the descending colon to the rectum.

Sigmoid colon

39

The tube of the GI tract with three distinct segments (duodenum, jejunum and ileum) that are involved in the absorption of nutrients into the body. In the human adult, it is approximately 22 feet long.

Small intestine

40

The largest portion of the GI tract, situated between the esophagus and the small intestine. It secretes gastric juices to assist in the breakdown of food.

Stomach

41

Salivary glands located under the tongue.

Sublingual salivary glands

42

Salivary glands located under the jawbone

Submandibular salivary glands

43

The layer of tissue beneath a mucous membrane.

Submucosa

44

The hard appendages in the mouth made of dentine and enamel that enable mastication (chewing)

Teeth

45

The tear-shaped appendage hanging down in the center of the edge of the soft palate.

Uvula

46

Tiny projections on the inner intestine walls that aid in absorption

Villi

47

A contriction in the lower portion of the esophagus caused by unrelaxed sphincter muscles.

Achalasia

48

The abnormal return of stomach contents back into the esophagus.

Acid reflux

49

Fibrous bands abnormally binding to tissue (such as scar tissue).

Adhesion

50

An eating disorder characterized by an unrealistic self-image of the body, with a pathological fear of becoming fat, excessive dieting, and emaciation. No loss of appetite occurs until the late stages of the disease; primarily affects girls and young women.

Anorexia nervosa

51

An inflammation of the appendix

Appendicitis

52

"Rumbling" noises in the GI tract, caused by gas moving through the intestines.

Borborygmus

53

An eating disorder characterized by self-induced purging (vomiting and/or diuretic and laxative abuse) after binge eating; strict dieting, fasting, or obsessive exercising to prevent weight gain.

Bulimia nervosa

54

A small, painful crater in the mouth; also called an aphthous ulcer.

Canker sore

55

An inflammation of the gallbladder

Cholecystitis

56

The loss of healthy tissue accompanied by fibrosis and chronic inflammation.

Cirrhosis of the liver

57

An inflammation of the colon

Colitis

58

The surgical construction of an artificial opening of the colon through the abdominal wall as a treatment for serious digestive problems.

Colostomy

59

Difficulty in eliminating feces

Constipation

60

Chronic inflammation of the digestive or GI tract

Crohn disease

61

Overly frequent and loose or fluid evacuations of the large intestine

Diarrhea

62

An inflammation of a sac-like appendage on the inside walls of the large intestine.

Diverticulitis

63

Difficulty in swallowing.

Dysphagia

64

An inflammation of the small intestine

Enteritis

65

A mass in the groin stemming from a looped large intestine that occurs most frequently in overweight females.

Femoral hernia

66

Digestive gas

Flatus

67

A chronic inflammation of the gallbladder, usually accompanied by gallstones.

Gallbladder disease

68

An inflammation of the stomach

Gastritis

69

An acute inflammation of the lining of the GI tract

Gastroenteritis

70

An inflammation of the gums

Gingivitis

71

Indigestion accompanied by a burning sensation.

Heartburn

72

A generally non-life-threatening disease that is transmitted though contaminated food and drink and causes flu-like symptoms after a 2-week incubation period.

Hepatitis A

73

A viral diease, spread by contact with contaminated blood or passed through the placenta from mother to child; a person can be a carrier and be asymptomatic; sever infections are characteristic, as is cirrhosis of the liver.

Hepatitis B

74

A viral disease most commonly caused through the transfusion of infected blood; spreading by sexual contact is rare. The signs and symptoms are similar to that of Hepatitis B.

Hepatitis C

75

A protusion of an organ through the body wall or into another organ, such as a loop of the large intestine protruding through the abdomen.

Hernia

76

A type of hernia in which part of the stomach is protruding through the diaphragm.

Hiatal hernia

77

Name given to a group of disorders that cause inflammation to the instestines.

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBI)

78

A chronic condition of the large intestine, characterized by recurrent abdominal cramps and diarrhea, often alternating with periods of constipation; usually attributed to stress.

Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)

79

A yellowing of the skin and the whites of the eyes, caused by a buildup of a bile pigment.

Jaundice

80

Inadequate nutrition, but not the same thing as starvation. A person could eat three meals per day and still have this.

Malnutrition

81

A queasy feeling in the GI tract or general abdomen, often culminating in vomiting.

Nausea

82

Excessive fat in the body.

Obesity

83

An ulcer in the esophagus, stomach, or proximal small intestine, caused by gastric juices eating through the mucous membrane.

Peptic ulcer

84

Regurgitation of the stomach contents

Vomiting.