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Flashcards in 6 - Cellular Level of the Body Deck (75):
1

Energy for many of the body's processes is supplied by ________

ATP

2

______ is the study of the structure of cells.

Cellology

3

The genetic information of cells is encoded in _______

DNA

4

Most chemical activities fo the cells take place in the ______

Cytoplasm

5

The splitting of a compound into fragments by adding water is called ______

Hydrolysis

6

Special structures in the cell that perform specific functions.

Organelles

7

Mitosis results in _______

Two daughter cells

8

Lou Gehrig disease is also known as _______

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

9

Which of the following affects people of African descent?

Sickle cell anemia

10

Genetic information is transferred from DNA to the cytoplasm by ______

RNA

11

The _______ is the control center of the cell.

Nucleus

12

A birth defect due to both parents having an abnormal gene is referred to as ______

Recessive inheritance

13

The human genome contains _____ pairs of chromosomes.

23

14

A ____ cell contains a single set of chromosomes.

Haploid

15

Every cell in the body has ____ genes.

50,000+

16

The smallest membrane-enclosed compartment that can sustain life independent of other entities.

Cell

17

The study of the structure and function of cells.

Cytology

18

Another term for cytology.

Cell physiology

19

A protective barrier and a communicator between the environments inside and outside of the cell.

Plasma membrane

20

When the plasma membrane regulates what substances may enter or exit the cell.

Selectively permeable

21

A process during which molecules or ions spread from an area of low concentration to an area of high concentration until the concentration is the same throughout the cell.

Diffusion

22

When a substance is diffusing across a semipermeable membrane

Passive transport

23

The energy-requiring movement of ions, nutrients and molecules across the plasma membrane from an area of low concentration to an area of high concentration, against the substance's concentration gradient.

Active transport

24

Cell division is sometimes referred to as _______

Proliferation

25

A ______ is a segment of the cell's DNA.

Gene

26

A form of nuclear division in which there are actually two successive divisions without involving and chromosome replication.

Meiosis

27

During meiosis, it results in the formation of 4 daughter cells, each of which are called _______

Haploid

28

The union of an egg and sperm during fertilization yields a ______ egg, with a full set of paired chromosomes.

Diploid

29

The planned death of cells, programmed genetically during different stages of development.

Apoptosis

30

A grooved passage composed of proteins that allow substances to flow in and out of the cell.

Channel

31

The thread-like structure found in the nucleus of a cell that contains DNA and proteins.

Chromosome

32

Tiny hair-like structures that propel single-celled organisms. They serve the purpose of moving particles along a tissue surface.

Cilia

33

An unequal distribution of a substance, often in reference to a higher concentration on one side of the plasma membrane than on the other.

Concentration gradient

34

An abnormality in embryonic or fetal development that is present at birth.

Congenital defect

35

The division of cytoplasm of a cell following division of the nucleus.

Cytokinesis

36

A network of filaments that provide structural support for a cell and act as channels for some types of cellular transport.

Cytoskeleton

37

The fluid part of cytoplasm.

Cytosol

38

A condition that gradually gets worse over time.

Degenerative disease

39

The spontaneous movement of molecules to reach equilibrium, a uniform concentration; occurs naturally and requires no cellular input.

Diffusion

40

The inheritance of a trait or disease from a parent who exhibited the trait and had at least one gene for the trait.

Dominant inheritance

41

A membrane system present throughout the cytoplasm.

Endoplasmic reticulum

42

A protein that catalyzes biochemical reactions.

Enzyme

43

A cell that has a nucleus containing genetic material.

Eukaryote

44

The release of material from a cell by the fusion of a closed membrane shell with a plasma membrane.

Exocytosis

45

The passage of liquid through a filter.

Filtration

46

Tiny thread-like extensions that provide locomotion for the cell, are similar to cilia but longer, and in humans are found only on sperm.

Flagella

47

Experimental techniques for producing molecules of DNA containing new genes, usually for the purpose of cloning.

Genetic engineering

48

A cellular organelle; a stack of membrane sacs where sugar is added to protein and where cellular products are packaged.

Golgi apparatus

49

The splitting of a compound into fragments by the addition of water.

Hydrolysis

50

A tiny sac containing enzymes that ingest cellular matter that is damaged or foreign to the body.

Lysosome

51

A change in the genetic material.

Mutation

52

The death of cells resulting from injury.

Necrosis

53

The basic component of DNA and RNA.

Nucleotide

54

The movement of solvent through a semipermeable membrane.

Osmosis

55

The pressure exerted by water or other solvents flowing into a solution through a membrane.

Osmotic pressure

56

A cell that has the ability to ingest and destroy such substances as bacteria and cellular debris.

Phagocyte

57

The uptake of fluid material into a cell.

Pinocytosis

58

A cell whose genetic material is not contained in a nucleus, such as a bacterium.

Prokaryote

59

The inheritance of a trait or disease when both parents have the same abnormal gene, although they may or may not have the trait or disease.

Recessive inheritance

60

The reproduction of an exact copy.

Replication

61

A cellular organelle; a component of RNA involved in synthesizing proteins.

Ribosome

62

The property of the plasma membrane that allows the passage of certain substances into and out of the cell.

Selective permeability

63

An autoimmune disorder that causes hyperthyroidism.

Graves' disease

64

A terminal disease characterized by mental and physical deterioration.

Huntington disease

65

Excessive thyroid activity, resulting in insomnia, palpitations, intolerance of heat, and other symptoms.

Hyperthyroidism

66

A deficiency of thyroid activity, resulting lethargy, decreased metabolism, intolerance of cold, and other symptoms.

Hypothyroidism

67

A systemic autoimmune disease in which the body produces antibodies to its own tissues, resulting in severe inflammation to the vital organs.

Lupus

68

A neurological disease causing a progressive loss of muscle contraction, characterized by a slackening of the musculature of the face and upper body and drooping of the eyelids.

Myasthenia

69

A sleep disorder that causes uncontrollable sleep during the day and disturbed sleep at night; may be accompanied by cataplexy, which causes a sudden temporary loss of muscle tone.

Narcolepsy

70

A progressive bone disease resulting in the replacement of normal bone by less strong fibrous and/or unorganized bone tissue.

Paget disease

71

Recurring blood vessel spasms in the digits that causes a pallor (whitening) of the fingers and toes.

Raynaud disease

72

Hyperactivity of the pigmented cells of the retina, leading to blindness.

Retinitis pigmentosa

73

A group of major psychotic disorders that cause irrational thought, delusions, hallucinations and bizarre behavior.

Schizophrenia

74

A birth defect in which the vertebral arch does not fuse close, leaving the spinal cord exposed.

Spina bifida

75

A birth defect among people of Eastern European Jewish heritage that causes early death because of the abnormal metabolism of fats; affects the brain and nerves.

Tay-Sachs disease