Flashcards in 6 - Cellular Level of the Body Deck (75)
Energy for many of the body's processes is supplied by ________
______ is the study of the structure of cells.
The genetic information of cells is encoded in _______
Most chemical activities fo the cells take place in the ______
The splitting of a compound into fragments by adding water is called ______
Special structures in the cell that perform specific functions.
Mitosis results in _______
Two daughter cells
Lou Gehrig disease is also known as _______
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
Which of the following affects people of African descent?
Sickle cell anemia
Genetic information is transferred from DNA to the cytoplasm by ______
The _______ is the control center of the cell.
A birth defect due to both parents having an abnormal gene is referred to as ______
The human genome contains _____ pairs of chromosomes.
A ____ cell contains a single set of chromosomes.
Every cell in the body has ____ genes.
The smallest membrane-enclosed compartment that can sustain life independent of other entities.
The study of the structure and function of cells.
Another term for cytology.
A protective barrier and a communicator between the environments inside and outside of the cell.
When the plasma membrane regulates what substances may enter or exit the cell.
A process during which molecules or ions spread from an area of low concentration to an area of high concentration until the concentration is the same throughout the cell.
When a substance is diffusing across a semipermeable membrane
The energy-requiring movement of ions, nutrients and molecules across the plasma membrane from an area of low concentration to an area of high concentration, against the substance's concentration gradient.
Cell division is sometimes referred to as _______
A ______ is a segment of the cell's DNA.
A form of nuclear division in which there are actually two successive divisions without involving and chromosome replication.
During meiosis, it results in the formation of 4 daughter cells, each of which are called _______
The union of an egg and sperm during fertilization yields a ______ egg, with a full set of paired chromosomes.
The planned death of cells, programmed genetically during different stages of development.
A grooved passage composed of proteins that allow substances to flow in and out of the cell.
The thread-like structure found in the nucleus of a cell that contains DNA and proteins.
Tiny hair-like structures that propel single-celled organisms. They serve the purpose of moving particles along a tissue surface.
An unequal distribution of a substance, often in reference to a higher concentration on one side of the plasma membrane than on the other.
An abnormality in embryonic or fetal development that is present at birth.
The division of cytoplasm of a cell following division of the nucleus.
A network of filaments that provide structural support for a cell and act as channels for some types of cellular transport.
The fluid part of cytoplasm.
A condition that gradually gets worse over time.
The spontaneous movement of molecules to reach equilibrium, a uniform concentration; occurs naturally and requires no cellular input.
The inheritance of a trait or disease from a parent who exhibited the trait and had at least one gene for the trait.
A membrane system present throughout the cytoplasm.
A protein that catalyzes biochemical reactions.
A cell that has a nucleus containing genetic material.
The release of material from a cell by the fusion of a closed membrane shell with a plasma membrane.
The passage of liquid through a filter.
Tiny thread-like extensions that provide locomotion for the cell, are similar to cilia but longer, and in humans are found only on sperm.
Experimental techniques for producing molecules of DNA containing new genes, usually for the purpose of cloning.
A cellular organelle; a stack of membrane sacs where sugar is added to protein and where cellular products are packaged.
The splitting of a compound into fragments by the addition of water.
A tiny sac containing enzymes that ingest cellular matter that is damaged or foreign to the body.
A change in the genetic material.
The death of cells resulting from injury.
The basic component of DNA and RNA.
The movement of solvent through a semipermeable membrane.
The pressure exerted by water or other solvents flowing into a solution through a membrane.
A cell that has the ability to ingest and destroy such substances as bacteria and cellular debris.
The uptake of fluid material into a cell.
A cell whose genetic material is not contained in a nucleus, such as a bacterium.
The inheritance of a trait or disease when both parents have the same abnormal gene, although they may or may not have the trait or disease.
The reproduction of an exact copy.
A cellular organelle; a component of RNA involved in synthesizing proteins.
The property of the plasma membrane that allows the passage of certain substances into and out of the cell.
An autoimmune disorder that causes hyperthyroidism.
A terminal disease characterized by mental and physical deterioration.
Excessive thyroid activity, resulting in insomnia, palpitations, intolerance of heat, and other symptoms.
A deficiency of thyroid activity, resulting lethargy, decreased metabolism, intolerance of cold, and other symptoms.
A systemic autoimmune disease in which the body produces antibodies to its own tissues, resulting in severe inflammation to the vital organs.
A neurological disease causing a progressive loss of muscle contraction, characterized by a slackening of the musculature of the face and upper body and drooping of the eyelids.
A sleep disorder that causes uncontrollable sleep during the day and disturbed sleep at night; may be accompanied by cataplexy, which causes a sudden temporary loss of muscle tone.
A progressive bone disease resulting in the replacement of normal bone by less strong fibrous and/or unorganized bone tissue.
Recurring blood vessel spasms in the digits that causes a pallor (whitening) of the fingers and toes.
Hyperactivity of the pigmented cells of the retina, leading to blindness.
A group of major psychotic disorders that cause irrational thought, delusions, hallucinations and bizarre behavior.
A birth defect in which the vertebral arch does not fuse close, leaving the spinal cord exposed.