18 - The Urinary System Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 18 - The Urinary System Deck (43):
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A small vessel that conveys blood to the glomerulus

Afferent arteriole

1

The tubule opening of the nephron where water and solutes empty from the bloodstream

Bowman capsule

2

Inlet on the renal pelvis where urine is collected from the renal pyramids

Calyx

3

Twisted segments of the nephrons on either side of the loop of Henle. The proximal convoluted tubule is the first segment of the nephron; the distal convoluted tubule is the last segment of the nephron.

Convoluted tubule

4

A small vessel that conveys blood away from the glomerulus

Efferent arteriole

5

A measurement of the kidney's ability to filter and and remove waste products from the blood

Glomerular filtration rate

6

A network of capillaries inside the Bowman capsule involved in filtering blood

Glomerulus

7

The curved area of the kidney where the renal artery, renal vein, and ureters enter or leave the kidney

Hilus

8

One of the two large, bean-shaped organs that are the main filters of blood

Kidney

9

The U-shaped part of a nephron

The Loop of Henle

10

Urination

Micturiton

11

The small filtering unit in the kidney made up of blood vessels and tubules; it is the working unit of the kidney.

Nephron

12

A projection that has small openings through which urine drains out of the nephron

Papilla

13

A vessel arising from the efferent arteriole that runs alongside and around the renal tubules and drains into the renal venous system

Peritubular capillary

14

Fibrous connective tissue surrounding the kidneys

Renal capsule

15

The center of the kidney, where the renal pyramids are located

Renal medulla

16

The extension of the ureters inside the kidney that collects urine from the calyces and sends it down the ureters

Renal pelvis

17

A triangular area in the kidney that contains nephrons

Renal pyramid

18

One of two tubes that transport urine from the kidneys to the urinary bladder

Ureter

19

The tube that transports urine from the urinary bladder to the outside of the body

Urethra

20

The sac that holds urine before it is expelled from the body; urination occurs when the bladder contracts.

Urinary bladder

21

The liquid waste excreted from the kidneys

Urine

22

A sudden decline of renal function

Acute renal failure

23

An excess amount of nitrogenous waste products in the blood

Azotemia

24

A gradual decline in renal function

Chronic renal failure

25

An inflammation of the urinary bladder

Cystitis

26

A protrusion of the urinary bladder into the vaginal canal, resulting in incontinence

Cystocele

27

A mechanical filtering of the blood done as a treatment for kidney failure

Dialysis

28

Incontinence, including bed-wetting

Enuresis

29

An inflammation of the capillary loops in the nephrons; an autoimmune disease.

Glomerulonephritis

30

The presence of ketones, a metabolism that can create a life-threatening condition. In a diabetic subject it indicates an absence of insulin.

Ketosis

31

A nonsurgical blasting of kidney stones with sound waves to break them up

Lithotripsy

32

An inflammation of the nephrons of the kidney

Nephritis

33

An inflammation caused by an excess amount of proteins in the urine, resulting in edema

Nephrotic syndrome

34

Frequent night-time urination

Nocturia

35

A rare genetic condition in which the kidneys contain many cysts, resulting in chronic kidney failure usually in late middle age

Polycystic kidney disease

36

An inflammation of the kidney caused by a bacterial infection

Pyelonephritis

37

A kidney stone

Renal calculus

38

A narrowing of any of the renal tubes

Renal stricture

39

An inflammation of the urethra

Urethritis

40

An inability to urinate or failure to empty the bladder totally; bladder pressure being unable to overcome urethral resistance. It can caused by a weak bladder wall or urethral obstruction.

Urinary retention

41

An inflammation of any of the structures of the urinary system

Urinary tract infection (UTI)

42

Another name for kidney stones

Urolithiasis