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Flashcards in 10 - Nervous System Deck (148):
1

The nervous system includes which two separate systems?

The CNS and the PNS

2

The autonomic nervous system is part of the _____

Peripheral nervous system

3

The study of the nervous system is called ______

Neurology

4

Neurotransmitters are ______

Chemical messengers

5

The two ends of a neuron are called the _____

Axon and the dendrite

6

The space between two cells is called the ______

Synapse

7

What is both a neurotransmitter and a hormone?

Dopamine

8

The myelin sheath is a layer of ____ surrounding the neuron.

Insulation

9

The two main types of cells in the nervous tissue are ______

Neurons and glial cells

10

___ is a natural opiate produced by the brain to diminish pain.

Endorphin

11

The only cells that send signals away from the cerebellum are _____

Purkinje cells

12

____ is damage to or destruction of a cell due to exhaustion or injury.

Chromatolysis

13

Paralysis affecting only one side of the body is referred to as ______

Hemiplegia

14

Transient ischemic attack is another term for _____

Mini-stroke

15

______ provide information about movement and position.

Proprioceptors

16

The functional unit of the nervous system.

Neurons

17

A component of a neuron that receives incoming nerve impulses.

Dendrite

18

A component of a neuron that carries nerve signals away from the body of the neuron.

Axon

19

Supporting cells that produce electrical insulation as well as other support functions.

Glial cells

20

Messages in the neurons are carried along with the help of chemicals called _________

Neurotransmitters

21

A neurotransmitter that propagates electrical impulses from one nerve cell to one another in the PNS.

Acetylcholine

22

A neurotransmitter involved in the regulation of sleep, body temperature and sensory perception but is also thought to have something to do with our moods.

Serotonin

23

Neurons that usually have a long dendrite and a short axon, and carry messages from sensory receptors to the CNS.

Afferent neurons

24

Neurons that have short dendrites and long axons and carry messages from the CNS to the muscles or glands.

Efferent neurons

25

Another term for afferent neuron.

Sensory neuron

26

Another term for efferent neuron.

Motor neuron

27

Specialized cells that react to chemical substances and relay information throughout the CNS.

Chemoreceptors

28

Specialized cells that respond to light on the retina of the eye.

Photoreceptors

29

Free nerve endings that respond to pain.

Nociceptors

30

Specialized cells that detect heat or cold.

Thermoceptors

31

Specialized cells that are located throughout the muscular and skeletal systems and provide information about body movements and position.

Proprioceptors

32

What receptors act the same as proprioceptors except that they are exclusively located in the joints?

Joint kinesthetic receptors

33

The route through the nervous system that connects a receptor and an effector.

Reflex arc

34

The study of the nervous system and its diseases and disorders.

Neurology

35

A chemical that carries messages across the synaptic cleft at the synapse; the space between two neurons.

Acetylcholine

36

The electrical signal that rapidly propagates along the axon of nerve cells and over the surface of some muscle and glandular cells.

Action potential

37

The principle stating that muscle fibers always contract completely each time they are stimulated by their motor neuron, and that they do not contract at all if they are not stimulated by their motor neuron.

All-or-none principle

38

The universal energy storage molecule used as a ready energy source in all living cells for all biological energy needs.

ATP

39

The external plasma membrane of an axon.

Axolemma

40

A reflex that elicits a response on one side of the body when the opposite is stimulated.

Crossed reflex

41

A reflex that extends the limbs whenever there is pressure applied to the surface of the hands or the feet.

Extensor thrust reflex

42

A reflex that causes flexion of the lower extremity whenever the foot is painfully stimulated.

Flexor withdrawal reflex

43

A reflex in which a single sensory neuron activates more than one motor neuron, stimulating more than one effector, and causing more than one action to take place.

Intersegmental reflex

44

A reflex in which there is a direct neural connection between the sensory cells and the motor neuron with no intermediary neuron needed.

Monosynaptic reflex

45

A reflex that allows humans and other animals to maintain the head in the correct position using the neck and limbs based on visual clues from the environment.

Optical righting reflex

46

Technical name for "goose bumps", a contraction of the smooth muscle of the skin because of cold or a very light stimulating touch.

Pilomotor reflex

47

A reflex that works through the trunk and the extremities to keep the body at its right place in space when force is working to make it otherwise (such as falling).

Postual reflex

48

A reflex in which there is a change in the electrical resistance of the skin caused by an emotional condition.

Psychogalvanic reflex

49

A reflex in which there is a contraction of the limb and neck muscles that occurs in response to being startled.

Startle reflex

50

A reflex in which there is a tonic contraction of the muscles due to an applied force; keeps a muscle from stretching far enough to be torn.

Stretch reflex

51

A reflex that takes place deep in the muscle whenever tapotement (percussion) is applied to the attached tendon.

Tendon reflex

52

A reflex that regulates the diameter of the blood vessels in response to varying degrees of sympathetic stimulation.

Vasomotor reflex

53

A reflex in which there is a contraction of the muscles of the abdomen or thorax in response to a stimulus from an internal organ.

Viseromotor reflex

54

The part of a neuron that carries messages away from the cell body toward target cells.

Axon

55

The swelling of an axon where it joins a neuron's cell body; the place where action potentials (nerve impulses) are generated.

Axon hillock

56

The cytoplasm of a neuron.

Axoplasm

57

A neuron that has two projections arising from opposite ends of the cell body.

Bipolar neuron

58

A gap between two neurons in the brain across which an impulse is transmitted by diffusion from one neuron to another neuron by means of a chemical neurotransmitter.

Chemical synapse

59

Disintegration or damage to a part of a cell due to overexhaustion or injury.

Chromatolysys

60

The transmission of nerve impulses or electricity.

Conduction

61

The amount of charge carried during a unit of time (minisucule, in the nervous system).

Current

62

The receptive surface of a neuron; a thread-like projection like the branch of a tree.

Dendrite

63

Movement of the membrane potential in the positive direction, from its normal negative level.

Depolarization

64

A chemical neurotransmitter and a hormone.

Dopamine

65

A junction where two excitable cells (neurons or muscle cells) meet.

Electrical synapse

66

A natural opiate produced by the brain to dimish pain.

Endorphin

67

Causing an action to take place.

Excitatory

68

The destruction of neurons caused by prolonged excitation of synaptic transmissions.

Excitotoxicity

69

Specialized cells that surround neurons, providing mechanical and physical support and electrical insulation.

Glial cells

70

Areas of the brain where thought takes place, composed mostly of nerve cell bodies and blood vessels.

Grey matter

71

Interrupting or preventing an action or secretion.

Inhibitory

72

The electrical potential difference across a membrane.

Membrane potential

73

A neuron that has numerous processes, usually an axon and three or more dendrites.

Multipolar neuron

74

A layer of insulation that surrounds nerve fibers and speeds up the conduction of electrical impulses.

Myelin sheath

75

A hormone and also the neurotransmitter for most of the sympathetic nervous system.

Norepinephrine

76

The major organelle of a neuron.

Nucleus

77

An output neuron; they are the only cells that send signals away from the cerebellum.

Purkinje cell

78

A type of neuron in the cerebral cortex that is shaped like a pyramid.

Pyramidal cells

79

A "resting period" between nerve impulses; the time after a neuron fires or a muscle fiber contracts, during which a stimulus will not evoke a response.

Refractory period

80

An inhibitory interneuron

Renshaw cell

81

The point at which a stimulus first produces a resonse.

Threshold

82

A neuron with a single process (an axon, no dendrites) resulting from the fusion of two polar processes.

Unipolar neuron

83

Having no insulating sheath; these neurons conduct impulses slowly.

Unmyelinated

84

The portion of the CNS, including the inner part of the cerebrum, that is made of nerve fibers, many of which are myelinated. The nerve fibers carry information as the nerve impulse between the brain and the spinal cord.

White matter

85

The pathology of the nervous system.

Neuropathology

86

A progressive death of nerve cells, resulting in the loss of function and memory; the cause is unknown.

Alzheimer disease

87

A pulsating, blood-filled sac protruding from the wall of a blood vessel or the heart.

Aneurysm

88

Blood turned from a liquid to a solid by coagulation.

Blood clot

89

Any injury causing malfunction of the CNS.

Central nervous system trauma

90

A collection of motor disorders resulting from damage to the brain that occurred before, during or after birth, causing impaired movements and slurred speech; no progressive but incurable.

Cerebral palsy

91

An impeded blood supply to some part of the brain, resulting in injury to brain tissue.

Cerebrovascular accident (CVA)

92

A progressive loss of neuron function resulting in jerky, uncontrollable movements.

Chorea

93

A recurring headache that attacks several times a day for a period of days, followed by long periods during which the person is headache-free. There are two forms - episodic and chronic.

Cluster headache

94

A severing of the spinal cord, resulting in loss of sensation and movement in all areas below the injury.

Complete transection

95

A head injury severe enough to cause a loss of consciousness, seizure, amnesia or changes in thought processes.

Concussion

96

An injury severe enough to cause a bruise without breaking the skin.

Contusion

97

Any disorder in which the loss of ability or activity is progressive.

Degenerative disorder

98

A general loss of intellectual abilities and profound changes in personality most often caused by alzheimer disease or other brain conditions, such as stroke or Parkinson disease.

Dementia

99

An emotional state characterized by sadness and despair; also used in medical contexts to indicate a loss of function.

Depression

100

Paralysis of corresponding parts on both sides of the body.

Diplegia

101

An inflammation of the brain.

Encephalitis

102

A head injury that causes blood to accumulate between the dura mater (the outer layer of membrane that covers the brain and spinal cord) and the skull.

Epidural hematoma

103

Transient electrical disturbances in the brain that cause a temporary loss of speech or motor abilities, characterized by episodes of impairment or unconsciouness.

Epilepsy

104

A general term for pain in the head.

Headache

105

Paralysis that affects only one side of the body; also called hemiparesis.

Hemiplegia

106

The escape of blood from the vessels

Hemorrhage

107

A rare inherited disease of the central nervous system, with typical onset between 30 and 50 years of age, characterized by progressive dementia, abnormal posture, and involuntary movements.

Huntington chorea

108

An inflammation of the meninges (membranes) covering the brain and spinal cord.

Meningitis

109

Alternating vasoconstriction and vasodilation of the cerebral blood vessles; resulting in throbbing headache pain, double vision, sensitivity to light and noise and other cerebral disturbances.

Migraine

110

Paralysis that affects a single limb.

Monoplegia

111

An inflammation of the spinal cord or bone marrow.

Myelitis

112

Paralysis of the legs and the lower part of the body.

Paraplegia

113

A progressive neurological disease that begins with tremors and movement difficulties and eventually ends in dementia.

Parkinson disease

114

Paralysis of all four limbs caused by stroke or a transection high in the spinal cord.

Quadriplegia

115

A particular lack of ability or activity that does not return after a stroke.

Residual ischemia neurological deficit

116

A lack of ability or activity that usually is reversed within 2 weeks of a stroke.

Reversible neurological deficit

117

A mental disorder characterized by a disassociation from reality, including, but not limited to, delusions and hallucinations.

Schizophrenia

118

A sudden onset of involuntary muscle contractions of the skeletal muscles, usually accompanied by a brief episode of unconsciouness.

Seizure

119

A lack of reflex or activity caused by trauma to the spinal cord.

Spinal cord injury

120

A temporary lack of reflex or activity below the level of a spinal cord injury.

Spinal shock

121

An impeded blood supply to some part of the brain, resulting in injury to brain tissue.

Stroke

122

A type of chorea that results from a strep infection followed by rheumatic fever.

St. Vitus dance

123

A sudden attack that causes temporary loss of speech, movement, or other function caused by a temporary interruption of blood supply to the brain; usually less than 24 hours in duration; also called a mini-stroke.

Transient ishemic attack (TIA)

124

An abnormal mass of tissue resulting from uncontrollable progressive cell division.

Tumor

125

A paralysis of one side of the face caused by an impinged facial nerve; may be temporary and brough on by stress.

Bell palsy

126

A brief attack of vertigo that occurs only when the head is moved a certain way, caused by an innter ear disfunction.

Benign paroxysmal positional veritgo (BPPV)

127

A compression of the median nerve in the wrist.

Carpal tunnel syndrome

128

Increasing pressure on a nerve or other structure.

Compression

129

The loss of a neuron's myelin sheath, with no damage to the axon or fiber pathways.

Demyelination syndrome

130

The loss of sensation caused by damage to nerve cells due to poor circulation or hyperglycemia resulting from diabetes.

Diabetic neuropathy

131

A constricted or distorted nerve.

Entrapment

132

An acute infection of mulitple nerves resulting in a loss of myelin and temporary loss of movement and sensation.

Guillain-Barre' syndrome

133

An abnormal bulging of a vertebral disc from its normal place in the spinal column.

Herniated disc.

134

A general term for any inflammatory skin disease caused by the herpes virus.

Herpes

135

A virus that causes infections that are usually oral, although they can occur anywhere on the body.

Herpes simplex, type I

136

A virus that causes infections that usually occur on the rectum and/or in the genital area, although they can occur anywhere on the body.

Herpes simplex, type II

137

A recurring condition caused by a buildup of fluid in the inner ear, leading to episodes of deafness, vertigo and ringing in the ears.

Meniere disease

138

A degenerative neurological disease in which myelin is destroyed in the brain but not in the peripheral nerves.

Multiple sclerosis (MS)

139

Abnormal pressure where a nerve emerges from the spinal cord.

Nerve roote compression

140

Pain in the nerves.

Neuralgia

141

Inflammation of a nerve.

Neuritis

142

A loss of feeling and/or function caused by degeneration in the distal end of a peripheral nerve.

Neuropathy

143

A syndrome charaterized by pain radiating from the lower back to the buttocks and down the lower extremity, usually caused by a prolapsed (displaced) disc.

Sciatica

144

A disease in adults that is caused by the same herpes virus that causes chicken pox in children; ourbreaks arise from a latent virus in the spinal or cranial nerves.

Shingles

145

A compression of the posterior tibial nerve resulting in pain or loss of sensation in the sole of the foot.

Tarsal tunnel syndrome

146

A compression of the brachial plexus or subclavian artery.

Thoracic outlet syndrome

147

A cranial nerve dysfunction that causes painful spasms in the lips, gums, cheeks, and chin areas of the face; also called tic douloureux.

Trigeminal neuralgia

148

An illusion of revolving through space or of space revolving around the person; often incorrectly used to describe dizziness.

Vertigo