Flashcards in 10 - Nervous System Deck (148)
The nervous system includes which two separate systems?
The CNS and the PNS
The autonomic nervous system is part of the _____
Peripheral nervous system
The study of the nervous system is called ______
Neurotransmitters are ______
The two ends of a neuron are called the _____
Axon and the dendrite
The space between two cells is called the ______
What is both a neurotransmitter and a hormone?
The myelin sheath is a layer of ____ surrounding the neuron.
The two main types of cells in the nervous tissue are ______
Neurons and glial cells
___ is a natural opiate produced by the brain to diminish pain.
The only cells that send signals away from the cerebellum are _____
____ is damage to or destruction of a cell due to exhaustion or injury.
Paralysis affecting only one side of the body is referred to as ______
Transient ischemic attack is another term for _____
______ provide information about movement and position.
The functional unit of the nervous system.
A component of a neuron that receives incoming nerve impulses.
A component of a neuron that carries nerve signals away from the body of the neuron.
Supporting cells that produce electrical insulation as well as other support functions.
Messages in the neurons are carried along with the help of chemicals called _________
A neurotransmitter that propagates electrical impulses from one nerve cell to one another in the PNS.
A neurotransmitter involved in the regulation of sleep, body temperature and sensory perception but is also thought to have something to do with our moods.
Neurons that usually have a long dendrite and a short axon, and carry messages from sensory receptors to the CNS.
Neurons that have short dendrites and long axons and carry messages from the CNS to the muscles or glands.
Another term for afferent neuron.
Another term for efferent neuron.
Specialized cells that react to chemical substances and relay information throughout the CNS.
Specialized cells that respond to light on the retina of the eye.
Free nerve endings that respond to pain.
Specialized cells that detect heat or cold.
Specialized cells that are located throughout the muscular and skeletal systems and provide information about body movements and position.
What receptors act the same as proprioceptors except that they are exclusively located in the joints?
Joint kinesthetic receptors
The route through the nervous system that connects a receptor and an effector.
The study of the nervous system and its diseases and disorders.
A chemical that carries messages across the synaptic cleft at the synapse; the space between two neurons.
The electrical signal that rapidly propagates along the axon of nerve cells and over the surface of some muscle and glandular cells.
The principle stating that muscle fibers always contract completely each time they are stimulated by their motor neuron, and that they do not contract at all if they are not stimulated by their motor neuron.
The universal energy storage molecule used as a ready energy source in all living cells for all biological energy needs.
The external plasma membrane of an axon.
A reflex that elicits a response on one side of the body when the opposite is stimulated.
A reflex that extends the limbs whenever there is pressure applied to the surface of the hands or the feet.
Extensor thrust reflex
A reflex that causes flexion of the lower extremity whenever the foot is painfully stimulated.
Flexor withdrawal reflex
A reflex in which a single sensory neuron activates more than one motor neuron, stimulating more than one effector, and causing more than one action to take place.
A reflex in which there is a direct neural connection between the sensory cells and the motor neuron with no intermediary neuron needed.
A reflex that allows humans and other animals to maintain the head in the correct position using the neck and limbs based on visual clues from the environment.
Optical righting reflex
Technical name for "goose bumps", a contraction of the smooth muscle of the skin because of cold or a very light stimulating touch.
A reflex that works through the trunk and the extremities to keep the body at its right place in space when force is working to make it otherwise (such as falling).
A reflex in which there is a change in the electrical resistance of the skin caused by an emotional condition.
A reflex in which there is a contraction of the limb and neck muscles that occurs in response to being startled.
A reflex in which there is a tonic contraction of the muscles due to an applied force; keeps a muscle from stretching far enough to be torn.
A reflex that takes place deep in the muscle whenever tapotement (percussion) is applied to the attached tendon.
A reflex that regulates the diameter of the blood vessels in response to varying degrees of sympathetic stimulation.
A reflex in which there is a contraction of the muscles of the abdomen or thorax in response to a stimulus from an internal organ.
The part of a neuron that carries messages away from the cell body toward target cells.
The swelling of an axon where it joins a neuron's cell body; the place where action potentials (nerve impulses) are generated.
The cytoplasm of a neuron.
A neuron that has two projections arising from opposite ends of the cell body.
A gap between two neurons in the brain across which an impulse is transmitted by diffusion from one neuron to another neuron by means of a chemical neurotransmitter.
Disintegration or damage to a part of a cell due to overexhaustion or injury.
The transmission of nerve impulses or electricity.
The amount of charge carried during a unit of time (minisucule, in the nervous system).
The receptive surface of a neuron; a thread-like projection like the branch of a tree.
Movement of the membrane potential in the positive direction, from its normal negative level.
A chemical neurotransmitter and a hormone.
A junction where two excitable cells (neurons or muscle cells) meet.
A natural opiate produced by the brain to dimish pain.
Causing an action to take place.
The destruction of neurons caused by prolonged excitation of synaptic transmissions.
Specialized cells that surround neurons, providing mechanical and physical support and electrical insulation.
Areas of the brain where thought takes place, composed mostly of nerve cell bodies and blood vessels.
Interrupting or preventing an action or secretion.
The electrical potential difference across a membrane.
A neuron that has numerous processes, usually an axon and three or more dendrites.
A layer of insulation that surrounds nerve fibers and speeds up the conduction of electrical impulses.
A hormone and also the neurotransmitter for most of the sympathetic nervous system.
The major organelle of a neuron.
An output neuron; they are the only cells that send signals away from the cerebellum.
A type of neuron in the cerebral cortex that is shaped like a pyramid.
A "resting period" between nerve impulses; the time after a neuron fires or a muscle fiber contracts, during which a stimulus will not evoke a response.
An inhibitory interneuron
The point at which a stimulus first produces a resonse.
A neuron with a single process (an axon, no dendrites) resulting from the fusion of two polar processes.
Having no insulating sheath; these neurons conduct impulses slowly.
The portion of the CNS, including the inner part of the cerebrum, that is made of nerve fibers, many of which are myelinated. The nerve fibers carry information as the nerve impulse between the brain and the spinal cord.
The pathology of the nervous system.
A progressive death of nerve cells, resulting in the loss of function and memory; the cause is unknown.
A pulsating, blood-filled sac protruding from the wall of a blood vessel or the heart.
Blood turned from a liquid to a solid by coagulation.
Any injury causing malfunction of the CNS.
Central nervous system trauma
A collection of motor disorders resulting from damage to the brain that occurred before, during or after birth, causing impaired movements and slurred speech; no progressive but incurable.
An impeded blood supply to some part of the brain, resulting in injury to brain tissue.
Cerebrovascular accident (CVA)
A progressive loss of neuron function resulting in jerky, uncontrollable movements.
A recurring headache that attacks several times a day for a period of days, followed by long periods during which the person is headache-free. There are two forms - episodic and chronic.
A severing of the spinal cord, resulting in loss of sensation and movement in all areas below the injury.
A head injury severe enough to cause a loss of consciousness, seizure, amnesia or changes in thought processes.
An injury severe enough to cause a bruise without breaking the skin.
Any disorder in which the loss of ability or activity is progressive.
A general loss of intellectual abilities and profound changes in personality most often caused by alzheimer disease or other brain conditions, such as stroke or Parkinson disease.
An emotional state characterized by sadness and despair; also used in medical contexts to indicate a loss of function.
Paralysis of corresponding parts on both sides of the body.
An inflammation of the brain.
A head injury that causes blood to accumulate between the dura mater (the outer layer of membrane that covers the brain and spinal cord) and the skull.
Transient electrical disturbances in the brain that cause a temporary loss of speech or motor abilities, characterized by episodes of impairment or unconsciouness.
A general term for pain in the head.
Paralysis that affects only one side of the body; also called hemiparesis.
The escape of blood from the vessels
A rare inherited disease of the central nervous system, with typical onset between 30 and 50 years of age, characterized by progressive dementia, abnormal posture, and involuntary movements.
An inflammation of the meninges (membranes) covering the brain and spinal cord.
Alternating vasoconstriction and vasodilation of the cerebral blood vessles; resulting in throbbing headache pain, double vision, sensitivity to light and noise and other cerebral disturbances.
Paralysis that affects a single limb.
An inflammation of the spinal cord or bone marrow.
Paralysis of the legs and the lower part of the body.
A progressive neurological disease that begins with tremors and movement difficulties and eventually ends in dementia.
Paralysis of all four limbs caused by stroke or a transection high in the spinal cord.
A particular lack of ability or activity that does not return after a stroke.
Residual ischemia neurological deficit
A lack of ability or activity that usually is reversed within 2 weeks of a stroke.
Reversible neurological deficit
A mental disorder characterized by a disassociation from reality, including, but not limited to, delusions and hallucinations.
A sudden onset of involuntary muscle contractions of the skeletal muscles, usually accompanied by a brief episode of unconsciouness.
A lack of reflex or activity caused by trauma to the spinal cord.
Spinal cord injury
A temporary lack of reflex or activity below the level of a spinal cord injury.
An impeded blood supply to some part of the brain, resulting in injury to brain tissue.
A type of chorea that results from a strep infection followed by rheumatic fever.
St. Vitus dance
A sudden attack that causes temporary loss of speech, movement, or other function caused by a temporary interruption of blood supply to the brain; usually less than 24 hours in duration; also called a mini-stroke.
Transient ishemic attack (TIA)
An abnormal mass of tissue resulting from uncontrollable progressive cell division.
A paralysis of one side of the face caused by an impinged facial nerve; may be temporary and brough on by stress.
A brief attack of vertigo that occurs only when the head is moved a certain way, caused by an innter ear disfunction.
Benign paroxysmal positional veritgo (BPPV)
A compression of the median nerve in the wrist.
Carpal tunnel syndrome
Increasing pressure on a nerve or other structure.
The loss of a neuron's myelin sheath, with no damage to the axon or fiber pathways.
The loss of sensation caused by damage to nerve cells due to poor circulation or hyperglycemia resulting from diabetes.
A constricted or distorted nerve.
An acute infection of mulitple nerves resulting in a loss of myelin and temporary loss of movement and sensation.
An abnormal bulging of a vertebral disc from its normal place in the spinal column.
A general term for any inflammatory skin disease caused by the herpes virus.
A virus that causes infections that are usually oral, although they can occur anywhere on the body.
Herpes simplex, type I
A virus that causes infections that usually occur on the rectum and/or in the genital area, although they can occur anywhere on the body.
Herpes simplex, type II
A recurring condition caused by a buildup of fluid in the inner ear, leading to episodes of deafness, vertigo and ringing in the ears.
A degenerative neurological disease in which myelin is destroyed in the brain but not in the peripheral nerves.
Multiple sclerosis (MS)
Abnormal pressure where a nerve emerges from the spinal cord.
Nerve roote compression
Pain in the nerves.
Inflammation of a nerve.
A loss of feeling and/or function caused by degeneration in the distal end of a peripheral nerve.
A syndrome charaterized by pain radiating from the lower back to the buttocks and down the lower extremity, usually caused by a prolapsed (displaced) disc.
A disease in adults that is caused by the same herpes virus that causes chicken pox in children; ourbreaks arise from a latent virus in the spinal or cranial nerves.
A compression of the posterior tibial nerve resulting in pain or loss of sensation in the sole of the foot.
Tarsal tunnel syndrome
A compression of the brachial plexus or subclavian artery.
Thoracic outlet syndrome
A cranial nerve dysfunction that causes painful spasms in the lips, gums, cheeks, and chin areas of the face; also called tic douloureux.