Learning and Memory Lec07 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Learning and Memory Lec07 Deck (41)
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1
Q

____ memories are available to consciousness: daily episodes, words and meanings, history

A

Declarative

2
Q

where are declarative memories stored on the short term

A

hippocampus

3
Q

where are declarative memories stored on the long term

A

cortical sites

4
Q

where are nondeclarative memories stored on the short term

A

their storage is diffuse throughout the brain

5
Q

where is long term sotrage of nondeclatative memory

A

cerebellum basal ganglia, promotors cortex, other motor behavior sites

6
Q

The ___ is needed for declarative memory

A

hippocampus

7
Q

Patient RB: bilateral brain damage to area CA1 of the hippocampus

how was her memory imapirment compared to HM?

A

similar to but less severe than HM’s

8
Q

What is Consolidation

A

acquisition and storage of declarative memory

9
Q

what does consolidation involve?

A

transfer from
hippocampus to cortical structures

10
Q

Long term memory (ENGRAM) depends on changes in

A

synaptic transmission efficacy

11
Q

LTP is ___ specific

A

input

12
Q

___ ion channel is critical to LTP

A

NMDA receptor

13
Q

what does NMDAR need to open?

A
  1. lignad binding
  2. coagonist glycine
  3. sufficient depoalrization to kick out Mg
14
Q

LTP strengthening mechanisms:

A
  1. Insertion of _more AMPA post synaptic
    receptors
    _
  2. More pre synaptic vesicles = increased
    Glu release = longer channel open
    time
  3. _Metabotropic Glu (mGlu) receptors
    activated
    _–> kinases. IP3 promotes release of intracellular Ca, PKC enhances NMDA currents
  4. New synaptic (dendritic) spines grown
  5. Protein synthesis
15
Q

if ___ is blocked by anisomycin, LTP decays within a few hours of the tetanus stimulus

A

protein syntehsis

16
Q

long term depression results in a

A

long term decrease in synaptic strength

17
Q

when Shaffer collateral-CA1 synapses are stimulated at a low rate (1 Hz) for long periods (10-15 min) what happens?

A

EPSP is depressed for several hours

18
Q

Can LTD effect LTP?

A

-LTD can erase LTP, and vice versa

19
Q

____ is not avaialble to conciousness

A

nondeclarative memory

20
Q

• Working memory is the ability to hold & manipulate information in mind for___ to ___ while it is used to achieve a particular goal

A

seconds to minutes

21
Q

what are 3 important areas for declarative memory

A
  1. hippocampus
  2. medial temporal lobe structures
  3. midline diencephalic regions
22
Q

___ is a model for declarative memory

A

LTP

23
Q

Pyramidal CA3 neurons in hippocampus send axons (Schaffer collaterals) to synapse on___

A

pyramidal CA1 neurons.

24
Q

Ltp

A baseline recording is established by providing a low-frequency & low-intensity stimulus such as when

A

only ampa receptors are activated

25
Q

pathway 1 – high frequency and high intensity stimulus

pathway 2 – low intensity and low freqeuncy stimulus

what is observed in pathway 1?

A

ltp

a strengthening of the EPSP after returning to the low-frequency & low-intensity stimulus

26
Q

add AP-5 or MK-801 during tetatnus. what effect on ltp?

A

these are ndma anatagonist so block ltp

27
Q

add AP-5 or MK-801 after tetatnus. what effect on ltp?

A

ltp occurs

28
Q

NMDA receptor activation is required for ___ of LTP.

A

INDUCTION

29
Q

: PKC and CaMKII diffuse across synapse and cause

A

enhanced release of glutamate after terminal depoalrization

30
Q

PKA and CaMKII increase AMPA receptor currents by insertion of ___

A

additional AMPA receptors

31
Q

PKC and PTK increase ___ currents.

A

NMDA

32
Q

long-term LTP in hippocampus requires ___ and ____

A

gene transcription and protein translation

33
Q

how are kinases involved in ltp?

A
  1. kinases diffuse to the CA1 cell nuclei influencing genes that trigger long- lasting post-synaptic modifications
  2. In the presynaptic terminals kinases influence genes that cause presynaptic structural modifications (not shown).
34
Q

Electron microscopic studies show that LTP induction causes an increase in the numbers of ___ on dendritic shafts

A

synapses

35
Q

ltd is dependent on

A

nmda receptors

36
Q

ltd is specific to

A

input

37
Q

how do ltd and ltp differ?

A
  1. with ca signals

ltp – kinases are activated

ltd – phosphatases are activated

  1. ltd is associated with itnerlization of ampa receptors
38
Q

ltp is associated with the ___ of ampa receptors

A

insertion of ampa receptors into postsynaptic membrane

39
Q

ltd is associated with the ___ of ampa receptors

A

internalization

40
Q

weak stimulation in CA1 (Ltd) results in ___in intracellular calcium

A

small increases

this leads to activation of phostpahatse

41
Q

ltd or ltp involvs activation of phosphatases?

A

ltd