Left Optic Nerve
(lose temporal field)
right optic tract (3)
____ is used to assess, diagnose, and monitor
progression of ophthalmologic and neurological conditions
What does the visual sensitivty/threshold depend on? (3)
1. age, attention level, refractive statu
2. pupil size, media opacity,
3. stimulus :size/intensity/color/duration/movement
Kinetic perimetry is ___
when will you see a small dull stimuli?
not until it gets to a fixation point
(as opposed to an elephant you would see immeidately)
static permistery involves
object not moving but going dimmer to birghter
What does confrontation examination involve?
just theexaminer,no standardized method.
• use examiner's face
• finger counting
• finger or hand moving
• palms side by side close to midline 1
(for relative hemianopias) • red object
Pros of confornation visual field exam are:
its inexpensive, fast, practical
Cons of confornation visual field exam are:
its examiner and examinee dependent
General and practical rules of confrontation visual field exam are
examiner is one arm length away, showing the object half that distance
examiner closes contralateral eye
What does an Amsler grid test?
teststhe central 10’ of the VF
• Ptreportsanyarea missing, blurred or distorted
What does tangent screen test?
the central 20 ’of the VF
___ may be used as pseudo static stimuli
What does goldman test
almost the entire visual field
What is the test where the pt faces the bowl and fixates on a peep hole?
What does it measure?
manualkineticbutcan also do static stimuli; tests almost entire VF. Vary stimulus sizes and intensities.
2. Humphrey Perimeter
automatedstatic, standardized by computer.
Plots blind spot, checks for false positives (sound only) and false negatives (stimulate known seeing area)
Differences between goldman perimeter and humphery perimeter?
Humphery is autonmatic static and standardized by a computer
Goldman is manual kinetic but can do static
depends on examiner
Which test tests for false positives and negatives? How does it do this?
Checksforfalsepositives (sound only) and false negatives (stimulates known seeing area)
poriton of visual field missing
What is arcuate? What causes it?
caused from retinal nerve fiber bundle damage
What is an altiudinal defect?
(superior or inferior defect that respects horizontal meridian) –splits horizontally-
What is a hemianopia?
splits vertically (nasal or temporal defect)
What is a quadranopia?
can't see a quadrant
Homonymous means the defect is on the ___
same side ("both right visual videals are missing)
Congrous means the defect is
similar in both eyes (not necessary similar side?)
What does heternoymous mean?
defect in different sides eg bitemporal
What is this?
Incomplete right eye temporal hemianopia
What is this?
Relative right eye temporal hemianopia
(relative/absolute is in terms of stimulus)
What is this?
Absolute right eye temporal hemianopia