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Flashcards in Basal Ganglia Lec22 Deck (64)
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1
Q

in the direct basal ganglia circuit 

the cortex has a ___ inputs on the striatum

A

excitatory

 

2
Q

in the direct pathway the striatum sends ___ projections to the ____.

A

striatum inhbiitory to intenral globus pallidus

3
Q

in the direct pathway

the intneral globus pallidus sends ___ projetions to the ___.

A

inhibitory projections to the thalamus

"the break"

4
Q

when active, the direct pathway ___ the brake on the thalamic positive input on the cortex

A

inhibits

it removes the break

5
Q

the ___ pathway turns the brake on 

A

indirect

6
Q

in the indirect pathway

the cortex has a ____ projection to the striatum

A

excitatory 

7
Q

in the indirect pathway

the striatum sends ____ projection to the ____

A

inhibitroy on the external globus pallidus

8
Q

in the indirect pathway

the external globus pallidus sends ____ projection to the ____

A

inhibiotry projection to the subthalamic nculeus

9
Q

in the indirect pathway

the subthalamic nucelus sends ____ projection to the ____

A

excitatory projection to the internal globus pallidus (which when activated inhibits the thalamus)

10
Q

what is the mechanism in which the indirect pathway turns on the brake?

A

it removes inhibition on the inhibiotyr neuron (from the globus pallidus) acting on the subthalamic nucleus

which sitmulates the external globus pallidus

which inhibits the thalamus

11
Q

most common basal ganglia neuron?

A

Medium Spiny Stellate Neuron

12
Q

what do the Medium Spiny Stellate Neuron do?

A

Connect input and output portions of basal ganglia

13
Q

medium spiny stellate neurosna re Mostly in the ___ & ACh(+)

A

matrix

14
Q

some medium spiny stellate neurons are in the
____ & are ACh(-)

A

striosome

15
Q

where are spindle neurons located

A

globus pallidus and STN

16
Q

where in the thalamus do the spindle neurons project to?

A

va/vl

17
Q

where in the globus pallidus does spindle neurons projec tto?

A

intenral GP

18
Q

where do the pigmented neurosn project to?

A

striatum, GP, STN

19
Q

inputs of striosome spiny stellate neurons?

A

limbic cortex and SNpc

20
Q

outputs of strosome med. spiny stellate neurons

A

substantia nigra

21
Q

inputs to matrix med. spiny stellate neurons

A

cortex, intenruons of substantia nigra

22
Q

outputs of  matrix med. spiny stellate neurons

A

globus pallidus

23
Q

output structures of the basal ganglia project back to the

A

thalamus first ebfore the cerbral cortex 

24
Q

what keeps the basala ganglia chain moving?

A

dopamine supplied by the substantia nigra

25
Q

inputs from the cortex go into the

A

caudate and the putamen

26
Q

outputs from basal ganglia leave by the 

A

globus pallidus and substrantia nigra

27
Q

 Dopamine enhances___pathway

A

 D1/direct 

28
Q

doapmine inhibits___ pathway

A

 D2/indirect

29
Q

dopamine causes ___ of the thalamus

A

disinhibition

30
Q

dopamine promotes ___ receptors

A

D1

31
Q

D1 receptors on striatum ___  of the thlaamus by the ____

A

remove inhibition by the internal globus pallidus 

32
Q

all basal ganglia inputs are 

A

excitatroy, glutamate

33
Q

all basal ganglia outputs are 

A

ihbiitory, gaba

34
Q

the ___ path is involved in reward

A

striosomal

35
Q

The basal ganglia are known to be involved in forms of "habit learning" which
require the creation of novel associations between ___ and ___

A

stimuli and motor responses

36
Q

 
The neurons most involved in habit learning are giant cholinergic interneurons in the ____

A

striatum

37
Q

giant cholinergic interneurons (tonically active neurons) in the striatum interactive with ___ 

A

doapmine inputs from substantia nigra at the level of the MSSNs

38
Q

TANs and SNpc neurons do NOT display simple relationships to __ or __

A

movements or
body parts 

39
Q

TANs and SNpc are activate by___ or ____

A

 rewards or stimuli that predict the

occurrence of rewards

40
Q

when activated by reward, Tan and ssubstantia nigra modfiy the bactivity of ___ based on this to form part of the neuronal susbtate underlyign behaviroal reinformcent

A

medium spinal stellate neurons

41
Q

HD kills ___
neurons in striatum

A

ENK

42
Q

HD kills ENK
neurons in striatum,
leads to unchecked ___

A

D1 tone  (which enhances the disinhbiiton of the thalamus)

43
Q

parkinsons leads to loss of dopamine in the substantia nigra, leading to a ___

A

hyperactive break

44
Q

acute lesions of the basal ganglia can lead to

A

cognitive
deficits, hallucinations and even OCD

45
Q

Are there high order consequences of basal ganglia damage? 

A
46
Q

neurosn in the BG are very active in simple mvoements of the ___ and ___

A

limbs and visually guided movements

47
Q

where in the thalamus does the basal ganglia project to 

A

1. VL and VA nculei of the thalamus - with body mvoement loop

2. mediodorsal and ventral anterior nuclei -- with oculomotor loop

48
Q

gp receive input to and from areas projecting back to prefrontal areas involved in ____

A

short term memory

49
Q

___ was activated in difficult mtoor task

A

globus pallidus

50
Q

hyperdirect: goes directly from the
__ to the ___

A

cortex to the subthal. 

51
Q

striasomal path: arises from cortical areas concerned with limbic function
reward cortical areas can therefore affect the release of ___

A

dopamine 

52
Q

taught to make saccade towards a target cue

place cells firing is dependent
on reward direction

true in ___ and ___ (in substantia nigra)

A

caudate and in level of pars
compacta cells

also in GP

53
Q

nonmotor functions of GP

expts showed heightened activation with

A

difficult motor task

working memory

reward drivign activity

54
Q

hyperkinetic is associated with ____ levels of basal ganglia output

A

low (which disinhbit the thalamus

55
Q

___ can be caused by an autonimmune reaction, particularly to the striatum

A

sydenhams chorea

56
Q

huntingtons is associated with atrophy in the

A

neostriatum, particularly the enkephalin expresisng neurons in the cuadate

57
Q

chronic tx with hutningtons can cause

A

tardive dyskinesias

58
Q

tx of ___ includes antidopamine drugs, antibiotics, immunomodulants, consider plasmapheresis.

A

syndenhams chorea

59
Q

huntgints treatment involves 

A

 anti-dopaminergic or dopamine-depleting drugs

60
Q

what does tx of parkinsons include

A

ldopa, doapminetics, MAO inhbiitors (prevent degradation of da0

anticholinergixcs

61
Q

side effects of l dopa includes

A

dyskinesias and hallucinations 

62
Q

surgical tx of parkinsons include

destroying the break by

A

X intenral globus pallidus or ventrolateral thalamus

63
Q

surgical tx of parkinsons include

putting ___ back into the basal ganglia

A

dopamine, fetal nigral transplant

64
Q

deep brain stimulation in parksindons is either to the

A

globus apllidus or subthalamus

 

drives them into normal rhtym, not inhbiited state