Basal Ganglia Lec22 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Basal Ganglia Lec22 Deck (64):
1

in the direct basal ganglia circuit 

the cortex has a ___ inputs on the striatum

excitatory

 

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2

in the direct pathway the striatum sends ___ projections to the ____.

striatum inhbiitory to intenral globus pallidus

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3

in the direct pathway

the intneral globus pallidus sends ___ projetions to the ___.

inhibitory projections to the thalamus

"the break"

4

when active, the direct pathway ___ the brake on the thalamic positive input on the cortex

inhibits

it removes the break

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5

the ___ pathway turns the brake on 

indirect

6

in the indirect pathway

the cortex has a ____ projection to the striatum

excitatory 

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7

in the indirect pathway

the striatum sends ____ projection to the ____

inhibitroy on the external globus pallidus

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8

in the indirect pathway

the external globus pallidus sends ____ projection to the ____

inhibiotry projection to the subthalamic nculeus

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9

in the indirect pathway

the subthalamic nucelus sends ____ projection to the ____

excitatory projection to the internal globus pallidus (which when activated inhibits the thalamus)

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10

what is the mechanism in which the indirect pathway turns on the brake?

it removes inhibition on the inhibiotyr neuron (from the globus pallidus) acting on the subthalamic nucleus

which sitmulates the external globus pallidus

which inhibits the thalamus

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11

most common basal ganglia neuron?

Medium Spiny Stellate Neuron

12

what do the Medium Spiny Stellate Neuron do?

Connect input and output portions of basal ganglia

13

medium spiny stellate neurosna re Mostly in the ___ & ACh(+)

matrix

14

some medium spiny stellate neurons are in the
____ & are ACh(-)

striosome

15

where are spindle neurons located

globus pallidus and STN

16

where in the thalamus do the spindle neurons project to?

va/vl

17

where in the globus pallidus does spindle neurons projec tto?

intenral GP

18

where do the pigmented neurosn project to?

striatum, GP, STN

19

inputs of striosome spiny stellate neurons?

limbic cortex and SNpc

20

outputs of strosome med. spiny stellate neurons

substantia nigra

21

inputs to matrix med. spiny stellate neurons

cortex, intenruons of substantia nigra

22

outputs of  matrix med. spiny stellate neurons

globus pallidus

23

output structures of the basal ganglia project back to the

thalamus first ebfore the cerbral cortex 

24

what keeps the basala ganglia chain moving?

dopamine supplied by the substantia nigra

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25

inputs from the cortex go into the

caudate and the putamen

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26

outputs from basal ganglia leave by the 

globus pallidus and substrantia nigra

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27

 Dopamine enhances___pathway

 D1/direct 

28

doapmine inhibits___ pathway

 D2/indirect

29

dopamine causes ___ of the thalamus

disinhibition

30

dopamine promotes ___ receptors

D1

31

D1 receptors on striatum ___  of the thlaamus by the ____

remove inhibition by the internal globus pallidus 

32

all basal ganglia inputs are 

excitatroy, glutamate

33

all basal ganglia outputs are 

ihbiitory, gaba

34

the ___ path is involved in reward

striosomal

35

The basal ganglia are known to be involved in forms of "habit learning" which
require the creation of novel associations between ___ and ___

stimuli and motor responses

36

 
The neurons most involved in habit learning are giant cholinergic interneurons in the ____

striatum

37

giant cholinergic interneurons (tonically active neurons) in the striatum interactive with ___ 

doapmine inputs from substantia nigra at the level of the MSSNs

38

TANs and SNpc neurons do NOT display simple relationships to __ or __

movements or
body parts 

39

TANs and SNpc are activate by___ or ____

 rewards or stimuli that predict the

occurrence of rewards

40

when activated by reward, Tan and ssubstantia nigra modfiy the bactivity of ___ based on this to form part of the neuronal susbtate underlyign behaviroal reinformcent

medium spinal stellate neurons

41

HD kills ___
neurons in striatum

ENK

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42

HD kills ENK
neurons in striatum,
leads to unchecked ___

D1 tone  (which enhances the disinhbiiton of the thalamus)

43

parkinsons leads to loss of dopamine in the substantia nigra, leading to a ___

hyperactive break

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44

acute lesions of the basal ganglia can lead to

cognitive
deficits, hallucinations and even OCD

45

Are there high order consequences of basal ganglia damage? 

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46

neurosn in the BG are very active in simple mvoements of the ___ and ___

limbs and visually guided movements

47

where in the thalamus does the basal ganglia project to 

1. VL and VA nculei of the thalamus - with body mvoement loop

2. mediodorsal and ventral anterior nuclei -- with oculomotor loop

48

gp receive input to and from areas projecting back to prefrontal areas involved in ____

short term memory

49

___ was activated in difficult mtoor task

globus pallidus

50

hyperdirect: goes directly from the
__ to the ___

cortex to the subthal. 

51

striasomal path: arises from cortical areas concerned with limbic function
reward cortical areas can therefore affect the release of ___

dopamine 

52

taught to make saccade towards a target cue

place cells firing is dependent
on reward direction

true in ___ and ___ (in substantia nigra)

caudate and in level of pars
compacta cells

also in GP

53

nonmotor functions of GP

expts showed heightened activation with

difficult motor task

working memory

reward drivign activity

54

hyperkinetic is associated with ____ levels of basal ganglia output

low (which disinhbit the thalamus

55

___ can be caused by an autonimmune reaction, particularly to the striatum

sydenhams chorea

56

huntingtons is associated with atrophy in the

neostriatum, particularly the enkephalin expresisng neurons in the cuadate

57

chronic tx with hutningtons can cause

tardive dyskinesias

58

tx of ___ includes antidopamine drugs, antibiotics, immunomodulants, consider plasmapheresis.

syndenhams chorea

59

huntgints treatment involves 

 anti-dopaminergic or dopamine-depleting drugs

60

what does tx of parkinsons include

ldopa, doapminetics, MAO inhbiitors (prevent degradation of da0

anticholinergixcs

61

side effects of l dopa includes

dyskinesias and hallucinations 

62

surgical tx of parkinsons include

destroying the break by

X intenral globus pallidus or ventrolateral thalamus

63

surgical tx of parkinsons include

putting ___ back into the basal ganglia

dopamine, fetal nigral transplant

64

deep brain stimulation in parksindons is either to the

globus apllidus or subthalamus

 

drives them into normal rhtym, not inhbiited state

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