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Flashcards in Audition Lec25 Deck (52)
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1

what are the 3 divisions of the cochlear nuclei

the dorsal, posteroventral and anteroventral nuclei.

2

the whole range of ____ transduced by the cochlea is represented in each of its three nuclei. 

frequencies

3

one ___ = a sine wave

tone

4

oval window is smaller than tympanic
membrane --> 

20x pressure increase

5

lever action of ossicular chain -->
___x force increase

1.3

6

- from base to apex there is an increase in

width by a factor of 10

 

7

- from base  to apex there is a decrease in

1. stiffness

2. frequency

3. conduction velocity

8

how are hair cells at the apex compared to the base?

LESS stiff and LONGER

9

High frequency = higher amplitude = ___ distance traveled

shorter

10

___ frequencies go farthest on the basilar membrane

Low

11

Auditory receptor cells at each point along the basilar membrane respond to the amplitude of the traveling wave that ___

reaches it.

12

Hair cells spontaneously oscillate & are most sensitive to sound frequencies which 

match their oscillation frequencies

13

The ___ membrane is connected to the basilar membrane via the rigid limbus

tectorial

14

Pushing up the basilar and tectorial membranes shears the cilia in one direction, which opens __channels and depolarizes the cell 

15

what is the normal potential difference between the sacla media and hair cell interior 

150 mV 

(scala media = 80 mV, hair cell interior = -70 mV)

16

what pushes K+ into hair cells? 

The scala media’s high (+) potential electrochemical gradient (150 mv)

17

what range of frequencies does the 3 cochlear nuclei receive?

each nucleus receives the full
range of frequencies

18

what type of pitch does the auditory cortex receive?

pitch patterns but necessarily pitch

19

Cochlear prostheses bypass the hair cells and excite the___

 appropriate nerve fibers.

21

general method of cohclear implants is to pass multiple electrodes into the ___

Scala Tympani.

23

The auditory system respond to a series of rapid fluctuations in______ brought about by the rarefaction and compression of air molecules.

 air pressure

25

the greater the magnitude of the amplitude of the sound the greater the 

physical magnitude of the sound.

28

how much of the incident energy is transmitted at the oval window

1/1000

30

in decibals how much sound is lost by the time it reaches the oval window

30db

32

 

At the oval window, only about 1/1000 of the incident energy is transmitted.

 

To compensate for this loss requires an approximately ___ increase in pressure

32-fold

34

The 32-fold increase is accomplished in the ___ ear,

middle

36

The effective area of the tympanic membrane is about 60 square millimeters and that of the oval window about 3 square millimeters.

 

This results in a ___-fold increase in pressure at the oval window.

20

38

he force at the oval window is not equal to the force applied at the tympanic membrane but actually exceeds it by a factor of 

1.3.

40

As a result of forced applied at 1. the oval window 2. at the tympanic membrane

the pressure at the oval window is increased by a factor of ___

26.

42

with tympanometry

 In conductive hearing losses more sound is ____ then in the normal middle ear.

reflected