Chronobiology of Sleep Lec27 Flashcards Preview

Neuroscience > Chronobiology of Sleep Lec27 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chronobiology of Sleep Lec27 Deck (62)
Loading flashcards...
1
Q

what stage of sleep do you spend the most time in

A

Stage 2 gets the most time (49%)

2
Q

Throughout the night, deep sleep intervals increase in ____ with succeeding cycles

A

length

3
Q

what is nREM?

A

stages 1-4

4
Q

fast saw tooth waves signify

A

rem sleep

5
Q

eeg looks ___ during rem

A

awake

6
Q

Dreams might be caused by (3)

A

unconscious desires, consolidation of memory, or removal of unwanted memories.

7
Q

what decreases when we age (in terms of sleep)

A

1. length 2. deep sleep, stages 3-4

8
Q

melatonin ___ at night

A

increases

9
Q

melatonin lowers ___ and ___

A

brain activation and arousal

10
Q

when does cortisol peak

A

during the am

11
Q

what NT does the reticular activation system use

A

acetylcholine (ACh), glutamate (Glu), norepi (NE), dopamine (DA), serotonin (5HT), & histamine (HA)

12
Q

ACh is released during __ and __

A

wakefulness and REM sleep

13
Q

Ach is released from the

A

basal forebrain and LDT and PPT

14
Q

importance of basal forebrain in sleep?

A

1. makes acetylcholine 2. makes gaba, which inhbiits the inhbiitory neurons of sleep centers

15
Q

LDT/PPT projects primarily to

A

1. thalamus 2. lateral hypothalamus 3. basal forebrain

16
Q

___ optimizes attention and task performance

A

norepinephrine

17
Q

___ firing during wakefulness > during NREM > during REM

A

locus corelueus (norepinephrine) TMN in posterior thalamus (histamine)

18
Q

not enough NE leads to ___

A

sleepiness

19
Q

excessive firing of norepinephrine leads to ___ and ___

A

insomnia and anxiety

20
Q

insomnia and anxiety caused by high norepinephrine can be tx with

A

alpha-1 and alpha-2 receptor inhibitors

21
Q

___is released from the TMN in the posterior hypothalamus

A

Histamine (HA)

22
Q

Histamine receptors involved with wakefulness

A

h2

23
Q

__ receptors INHIBIT histamine

A

h3

24
Q

blocking ___ receptors --> wakefulness

A

H3

25
Q

how is serotonin involved with sleep?

A

promotes wakefulness (via RAS) and inhibits REM

26
Q

3 areas that release dopamine

A

substantia nigra, vta, PAG

27
Q

where is dopamine released from that is invovled with sleep

A

PAG, causes wakefulness

28
Q

release of dopamine by PAG increases

A

wakefulness

29
Q

___ provides motivational arousal

A

Dopamine

30
Q

___ does task-oriented alertness

A

norepinephrine

31
Q

___ (a.k.a Hypocretin) is the wakefulness regulator.

A

Orexin

32
Q

orexin is not part of the

A

ras

33
Q

orexin is produced by the

A

lateral hypothalmus

34
Q

when doe orexin fires

A

only fires when awake, not during nrem or rem

35
Q

___ corodiantes and gates all the arousal systems

A

thalamus

36
Q

___ is associated with coritcal arousal

A

glutaamate

37
Q

____ is probably the origin of sleep spindles

A

thalamus

38
Q

the thalamus probably triggers the ___ levles tha tpromote waking up or rem sleep

A

acetylcholine

39
Q

what is deep sleep

A

stage 3-4

40
Q

spend least time in what sleep stage

A

1

41
Q

 REM amount ____ throughout the night 

A

increases

42
Q

Stage __ lessens throghuout the night 

A

4

43
Q

order of sleep cycle?

A

1-2-3-4-rem-2-3-4-rem-2-3-4..

44
Q

order of amount of time we spend in each sleep stage? from most to least

A

stage

2

3/4

rem

1

45
Q

during alert what waves do you have

A

beta

46
Q

during awake but drowsy what waves do you have

A

alpha

47
Q

during stage 1 what waves do you have

A

theta waves

48
Q

during stage 2 what waves do you have

A

sleep spindles and k complexes

49
Q

during stage 3  and 4 what waves do you have

A

delta

50
Q

during stage __ you have parasympathetic control, lower vital signs, resotratorive sleep

A

4

51
Q

___ tone dominantes during rem

A

syympathetic

52
Q
A

stage 2

53
Q

low voltage, fast, random activity 

A

awake but drowsy, alpha waves

54
Q

synchrnous delta waves occur during __ sleep

A

stage 3

55
Q

ach, glutamate, monoamines increased.. increased ___

A

wakefulness

56
Q

the ___ promotes wakefulness while lowering sleepiness

A

basal forebrain

57
Q

know serotnonin __ seems to be the clock gene

A

7

58
Q

if you block serotonin 7 receptor you promote and correct
 

A

circardian rhtym

59
Q

tueromamillary ncuelus is associated with

A

hsitamine

60
Q

The TMN promotes wakefulness and is part of the on/off sleep-wake switch of the

A

SCN

61
Q

RAS operates by 

A

incrementally increasing norepinphrine, dopamine, serotonin, ach

62
Q

in ptsd, the ___ may be set at like 120%

A

ras