Chronobiology of Sleep Lec27 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chronobiology of Sleep Lec27 Deck (62):
1

what stage of sleep do you spend the most time in

Stage 2 gets the most time (49%)

2

Throughout the night, deep sleep intervals increase in ____ with succeeding cycles

length

3

what is nREM?

stages 1-4

4

fast saw tooth waves signify

rem sleep

5

eeg looks ___ during rem

awake

6

Dreams might be caused by (3)

unconscious desires, consolidation of memory, or removal of unwanted memories.

7

what decreases when we age (in terms of sleep)

1. length 2. deep sleep, stages 3-4

8

melatonin ___ at night

increases

9

melatonin lowers ___ and ___

brain activation and arousal

10

when does cortisol peak

during the am

11

what NT does the reticular activation system use

acetylcholine (ACh), glutamate (Glu), norepi (NE), dopamine (DA), serotonin (5HT), & histamine (HA)

12

ACh is released during __ and __

wakefulness and REM sleep

13

Ach is released from the

basal forebrain and LDT and PPT

14

importance of basal forebrain in sleep?

1. makes acetylcholine 2. makes gaba, which inhbiits the inhbiitory neurons of sleep centers

15

LDT/PPT projects primarily to

1. thalamus 2. lateral hypothalamus 3. basal forebrain

16

___ optimizes attention and task performance

norepinephrine

17

___ firing during wakefulness > during NREM > during REM

locus corelueus (norepinephrine) TMN in posterior thalamus (histamine)

18

not enough NE leads to ___

sleepiness

19

excessive firing of norepinephrine leads to ___ and ___

insomnia and anxiety

20

insomnia and anxiety caused by high norepinephrine can be tx with

alpha-1 and alpha-2 receptor inhibitors

21

___is released from the TMN in the posterior hypothalamus

Histamine (HA)

22

Histamine receptors involved with wakefulness

h2

23

__ receptors INHIBIT histamine

h3

24

blocking ___ receptors --> wakefulness

H3

25

how is serotonin involved with sleep?

promotes wakefulness (via RAS) and inhibits REM

26

3 areas that release dopamine

substantia nigra, vta, PAG

27

where is dopamine released from that is invovled with sleep

PAG, causes wakefulness

28

release of dopamine by PAG increases

wakefulness

29

___ provides motivational arousal

Dopamine

30

___ does task-oriented alertness

norepinephrine

31

___ (a.k.a Hypocretin) is the wakefulness regulator.

Orexin

32

orexin is not part of the

ras

33

orexin is produced by the

lateral hypothalmus

34

when doe orexin fires

only fires when awake, not during nrem or rem

35

___ corodiantes and gates all the arousal systems

thalamus

36

___ is associated with coritcal arousal

glutaamate

37

____ is probably the origin of sleep spindles

thalamus

38

the thalamus probably triggers the ___ levles tha tpromote waking up or rem sleep

acetylcholine

39

what is deep sleep

stage 3-4

40

spend least time in what sleep stage

1

41

 REM amount ____ throughout the night 

increases

A image thumb
42

Stage __ lessens throghuout the night 

4

A image thumb
43

order of sleep cycle?

1-2-3-4-rem-2-3-4-rem-2-3-4..

44

order of amount of time we spend in each sleep stage? from most to least

stage

2

3/4

rem

1

A image thumb
45

during alert what waves do you have

beta

46

during awake but drowsy what waves do you have

alpha

47

during stage 1 what waves do you have

theta waves

48

during stage 2 what waves do you have

sleep spindles and k complexes

49

during stage 3  and 4 what waves do you have

delta

50

during stage __ you have parasympathetic control, lower vital signs, resotratorive sleep

4

51

___ tone dominantes during rem

syympathetic

52

Q image thumb

stage 2

53

low voltage, fast, random activity 

Q image thumb

awake but drowsy, alpha waves

54

synchrnous delta waves occur during __ sleep

stage 3

55

ach, glutamate, monoamines increased.. increased ___

wakefulness

56

the ___ promotes wakefulness while lowering sleepiness

basal forebrain

57

know serotnonin __ seems to be the clock gene

7

58

if you block serotonin 7 receptor you promote and correct
 

circardian rhtym

59

tueromamillary ncuelus is associated with

hsitamine

60

The TMN promotes wakefulness and is part of the on/off sleep-wake switch of the

SCN

61

RAS operates by 

incrementally increasing norepinphrine, dopamine, serotonin, ach

62

in ptsd, the ___ may be set at like 120%

ras