Chronobiology of Sleep Lec27 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chronobiology of Sleep Lec27 Deck (62)
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1

what stage of sleep do you spend the most time in

Stage 2 gets the most time (49%)

2

Throughout the night, deep sleep intervals increase in ____ with succeeding cycles

length

3

what is nREM?

stages 1-4

4

fast saw tooth waves signify

rem sleep

5

eeg looks ___ during rem

awake

6

Dreams might be caused by (3)

unconscious desires, consolidation of memory, or removal of unwanted memories.

7

what decreases when we age (in terms of sleep)

1. length 2. deep sleep, stages 3-4

8

melatonin ___ at night

increases

9

melatonin lowers ___ and ___

brain activation and arousal

10

when does cortisol peak

during the am

11

what NT does the reticular activation system use

acetylcholine (ACh), glutamate (Glu), norepi (NE), dopamine (DA), serotonin (5HT), & histamine (HA)

12

ACh is released during __ and __

wakefulness and REM sleep

13

Ach is released from the

basal forebrain and LDT and PPT

14

importance of basal forebrain in sleep?

1. makes acetylcholine 2. makes gaba, which inhbiits the inhbiitory neurons of sleep centers

15

LDT/PPT projects primarily to

1. thalamus 2. lateral hypothalamus 3. basal forebrain

16

___ optimizes attention and task performance

norepinephrine

17

___ firing during wakefulness > during NREM > during REM

locus corelueus (norepinephrine) TMN in posterior thalamus (histamine)

18

not enough NE leads to ___

sleepiness

19

excessive firing of norepinephrine leads to ___ and ___

insomnia and anxiety

20

insomnia and anxiety caused by high norepinephrine can be tx with

alpha-1 and alpha-2 receptor inhibitors

21

___is released from the TMN in the posterior hypothalamus

Histamine (HA)

22

Histamine receptors involved with wakefulness

h2

23

__ receptors INHIBIT histamine

h3

24

blocking ___ receptors --> wakefulness

H3

25

how is serotonin involved with sleep?

promotes wakefulness (via RAS) and inhibits REM

26

3 areas that release dopamine

substantia nigra, vta, PAG

27

where is dopamine released from that is invovled with sleep

PAG, causes wakefulness

28

release of dopamine by PAG increases

wakefulness

29

___ provides motivational arousal

Dopamine

30

___ does task-oriented alertness

norepinephrine