partial (focal) seizure involves
generalized (global) seizure involves
simple partial means
1. no LOC
2. single hemisphere
complex partial means
1. impairment of conciousness, but can still be awake
2. single hemisphere
secondarily generalized means
starts partial, then becomes generalized
where do generalzied seizures start?
in subcortical structures
abscense seizures involve
loss of consciousness without motor
tonic generlized seizures involves
sustained contraction of muscles
clonic seizures involve
repetitive movements (like shaking)
tonic clonic seizures involve
start as tonic, then become clonic
atonic seizures involve
negative sx, loss of muscle tone
how do you distinguish between complex partial seizure and abscence seizure?
subtypes of generalized seizures
what is epilepsy
the enduring predisposition to generate epileptic seizures
idiotpathic seizures are usually
what can cause epileptic channelopathies
mutations in voltage gated ion channels, can cause gain or loss of function
what is the inheritance pattern of channelpathies?
what kind of mutations are they mostly?
most are autonosomal dominant
mostly de novo
when do febrile seizures occur
occurring in childhood after 1 month of age
what are febrile seizures associated with?
associated with a febrile illness not caused by CNS infection
no hx of previous seizures & not acutely symptomatic
febrile seizure is a ___ channelopathy
Generalized Epilepsy with Febrile Seizures Plus invovles mutations in
SCN1B or SCN1A
with Generalized Epilepsy with Febrile Seizures Plus you get a loss of
loss of fast inactivation --> Na channel gain
of function --> persistent Na current
with Severe Myoclonic Epilepsy of Infancy you get a loss of
loss of high frequency action potential --> loss of inhibitory
function of GABAergic cortical interneurons & Pukinje cells --> seizures & ataxia
signs of Severe Myoclonic Epilepsy of Infancy in first year?
seizures associated with high body temp (fever, bathing) -->
seizures get progressively prolonged and cluster
what are the signs of Severe Myoclonic Epilepsy of Infancy?
show psychomotor delay, ataxia, cognitive impairment
what is the range of severity of Na 1.1 channelpathies?
sx of Benign Familial Neonatal Convulsion
brief generalized and partial seizures that usual resolve by age 6 weeks
K Channelopathies in Epilepsy invovles loss of function of what receptor?
Loss of Function from mutations in Kv7.2 and Kv7.3
K Channelopathies in Epilepsy involve gain of function from
mutation in the pore-forming subunit
the pore formiung suybunit involved in generalized epilepsy & paroxysmal dyskinesia