Early Development Lec02 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Early Development Lec02 Deck (73)
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1

Gastrulation defines the ___, ___, and ___ axes of the nembryo

midline, anterior-posterior and dorsal-ventral

2

the midline of the embryo is defined by the formation of the ____

notocord

3

notocord is formation incudes the formation of the ____

neural ectoderm

4

____ formationn is the ver y first event in neurogenesis

otochord formation

5

___ are the neural rpecurosr cells, which turns into CNS

neural ectoderm

6

if you treat ectoderm with ___ you get epidermis

bmp (a transforming growth factor beta)

7

if you treat ectoderm with ___ you get NEUROECTODERM

noggin chordin (inhibit BMP)

8

BMPs are made by the ____

surrounding tissue

9

Factors that inhibit BMP signaling are produced by the ____ (

notochord

10

___ signaling precedes BMP inhibition during neural induction

FGF

11

what do noggin and chordin do?

block bmp (thus, inducing neural development)

12

FGF stimulation increases production of ____

Noggin

13

neural induction the lateral margins of the____ fold inward to form the \n\nneural tube

neural plate

14

neural tube forms around day ___

20

15

the____ pinches off when the NEURAL TUBE is formed

neural crest

16

Neural tube closes from the middle both____ and ___

anteriorly and posteriorly (like a zipper going in both directions)

17

____ vitamins in the first few weeks of \n\npregnancy decrease neural tube closure defects.

B-complex (folic acid)

18

Spina Bifida rate in US is much lower since ____

nutrition

19

Spina Bifida is the failure of the ____ end of the neural tube to close

posterior

20

Anencephaly and holoprosenchephaly (Represents failure of the ___ neural tube to close.

anterior

21

Anencephaly and holoprosenchephaly lack ___

forebrain

22

____ makes cells in one area different from cells in another area

patterning

23

ventral patterning is realted to ___ function

motor

24

ventral siganl is secreted ____

sonic hedgehog

25

dorsal siganl is secreted ____

tgf betas

26

sonic hedgehog eventually leads to differences in ____

trnascription

27

What produces dorsal ventral polarity?

high sonic hedgehog in notocord and roof plate

no sonic headhog in the roof plate

28

roteins encoded by hox genes are powerful ____

transcriptional activators and repressors

29

results from abscence of sonic hedgehog:

1. The forebrain does not form

2. dorsal ventral polarity is disrupted

30

y dirsruptions in ____ also can cause cancers such as \n\nmedulloblastomas and basal cell carcinoma.

sonic hedgehog