Gastrulation defines the ___, ___, and ___ axes of the nembryo
midline, anterior-posterior and dorsal-ventral
the midline of the embryo is defined by the formation of the ____
notocord is formation incudes the formation of the ____
____ formationn is the ver y first event in neurogenesis
___ are the neural rpecurosr cells, which turns into CNS
if you treat ectoderm with ___ you get epidermis
bmp (a transforming growth factor beta)
if you treat ectoderm with ___ you get NEUROECTODERM
noggin chordin (inhibit BMP)
BMPs are made by the ____
Factors that inhibit BMP signaling are produced by the ____ (
___ signaling precedes BMP inhibition during neural induction
what do noggin and chordin do?
block bmp (thus, inducing neural development)
FGF stimulation increases production of ____
neural induction the lateral margins of the____ fold inward to form the \n\nneural tube
neural tube forms around day ___
the____ pinches off when the NEURAL TUBE is formed
Neural tube closes from the middle both____ and ___
anteriorly and posteriorly (like a zipper going in both directions)
____ vitamins in the first few weeks of \n\npregnancy decrease neural tube closure defects.
B-complex (folic acid)
Spina Bifida rate in US is much lower since ____
Spina Bifida is the failure of the ____ end of the neural tube to close
Anencephaly and holoprosenchephaly (Represents failure of the ___ neural tube to close.
Anencephaly and holoprosenchephaly lack ___
____ makes cells in one area different from cells in another area
ventral patterning is realted to ___ function
ventral siganl is secreted ____
dorsal siganl is secreted ____
sonic hedgehog eventually leads to differences in ____
What produces dorsal ventral polarity?
high sonic hedgehog in notocord and roof plate
no sonic headhog in the roof plate
roteins encoded by hox genes are powerful ____
transcriptional activators and repressors
results from abscence of sonic hedgehog:
1. The forebrain does not form
2. dorsal ventral polarity is disrupted
y dirsruptions in ____ also can cause cancers such as \n\nmedulloblastomas and basal cell carcinoma.