Chemical Senses Lec09 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chemical Senses Lec09 Deck (67)
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1

____ has no major, direct cortical
projections or thalamic input

Olfaction

2

Olfactory Epithelium has 3 cells: 

 basal (stem) cells, neurons, & supporting cells

3

___ cells in the olfactory epithelium renew every 30 days

basal

4

neurons in the olfactory epithelium are ___polar

bipolar

5

what do neurons of the olfactory epithelium need to survive? 

contact with & tropic support from olfactory bulb to survive

6

describe signal transduction of smell

--> odorant binds to G-protein receptor (R)


--> G protein (G) & adenyl cyclase (AC) increase


--> cAMP levels increase


--> cyclic nucleotide gated (CNG) ion channel opens

--> cell depolarizes

7

key ion in smell pathway?>

calcium

8

Humans have about ___ odorant receptors 

1000

9

1 neuron = ___ odorant receptor type

1

10

1 odorant receptor type recpgnizesone ___

compoenent of an odorant molecule

11

odorant encoding is based on a

pattern of responses

*not single neurons

12

what are the 4 layers of the olfactory bulb?

glomerular, external plexiform, mitral cell, granule cell

13

what layers in the olfactroy bulb go right to the olfactory cortex

mitral and tufted cells 

14

___ and ___ cells are inhibitory interneurons that modulate mitral & tufted cells

periglomerular and granule 

15

what is the outermost layer?

periglomerular

16

olfactory neurons projections to CNS is either

1) quadrant-to- quadrant

(2) same-OR-neurons-to-same-glomerulus

17

 weak stimulations are removed via ____ cells, so only the most sensitive / maximally stimulated neuron responds to an odorant.

granule cells

18

Each glomerulus recognizes different ___

odorants

19

each odorant receptor  recognizes a specific

 "odotope"

20

Odors are identified by overall activation pattern of 

glomeruli across the whole bulb

21

taste invovles innervation by what cranial nerves

7, 9, 10

22

Gustatory axons innervate the nucleus of the
___ in brainstem

solitary tract (NTS)

23

the solitary n. of the braisntem projects to the

VPM in the thalamus

24

what cranial nerve converys oral irratation (the common chemical sense)

trigem 

25

Four primary taste fields = areas of \

greatest sensitivity

26

Taste buds are all on ___.

papillae

27

 Each bud has ___ receptor & basal (stem) cells

50-100

28

Microvilli on ___ taste cells get initial stimulus 

Type II

29

Microvilli on Type II taste cells get initial stimulus then goes to

gap junctions

30

Microvilli on Type II taste cells get initial stimulus --> gap junction --> ___ cells

type III