parts of the papez circuit actually involved in emotions
cingulate cortex and the hypothalamus
Areas of the limbic system involved in emotional processing
amygdala, anterior and mid-cingulate cortex, mediodorsal nucleus of the thalamus and prefrontal cortex.
Primary emotions are reflexive and involve the (3)
amygdala, hypothalamus, and PAG
what primarily drives primary emotions?
the amygdala ---- which gets input from the auditory pathway (or visual) via the thalamus as well as directly from the auditory pathway.
___ emotions are conscious
secondary emotions and involve the ___
cortical limbic structures
Stimulation of the___ with norepinephrine induces the fight or flight response
dorsolateral portion of the PAG
. Stimulation of the ___ portion of PAG with norepinephrine leads to hypoactivity
Since the ___ nuclei project to the PAG, you can also stimulate the ___ nuclei for the same effect.
You need the ___ and ___ to regulate emotions.
If you get a stroke or tumor to either one of these regions you lose control of your emotions and can result in sham rage (excessive rage without external control)
hypothalamus or the PAG
. Only th___ and ___ cingulate cortex play a role in emotional processing.
is the posterior cingualte cortex ivnovled in emotion?
. It may be useful to think of serotonin as mood ___
. It may be useful to think of norepinpehrine as mood
what is included in the papez circuit
___ is the synapse site of the limbic system in the thalamus
primary emotions are linked with ___ reflexes
If a monkey’s temporal lobe / amygdala was removed, the animal became (4)
4. and ate inappropriate items.
Urbach-Wiethe disease = what is the cause and what are the sx?
calcification & loss of amygdala
1. no fear response
2. can’t recognize fear in faces
3. risky behaviors
Fear response involves direct connections from
thalamus to amygdala
Shown by auditory-foot shock conditioning experiment. Even if amygdala/
auditory cortex connection was cut,
fear was still present
Amygdala connects to __ and __ for fight-or-flight response
PAG and LC
Stimulation of ___ PAG = fight-or-flight,
lesion of Dorsal PAG
affective defense & "sham rage"
lesion fo ventral pag
All major emotion structures are connected to
The PAG regulates ANS via
dorsal mtoor fo vagus
The hypothalamus-pituitary axis (HPA) is driven by the (3)
amygdala, limbic cortex, & locus
Amygdala / Insula / Limbic Cortex (ACC) --> Paraventricular Nucleus (PVN) of hypothalamus -->
the amygdala projects to which cingulate cortex?
the ACC and anterior MCC
the ___ region of the cingulate cortex (around the genu of the corpus callosum) is extra
vulnerable to emotional diseases like depression
anterior cingulate cortex connects the ans to the
solitary n. and dosal mtoor of vagus
emotion associated with ventral acc
emotion associated with rostral acc
"Facial Region" of the ACC is impacted by what emotions
all of them
emotiona ssociated witht the anterior mid cingualte cortex
Electrical stimulation of the MCC evokes complex motor responses like (3)
lip puckering, finger kneading, and bilateral limb movements
input goes directlyfrom the thalamus to the
amygdala --> fear response
thalamus -> amygdala -->
ACC (upstream) and the PAG and LC (downstream pathways)
thalamus --> amygdala --> ACC (upstream) and the PAG (downstream pathways) --> both faical. n and facial expression activated so fear is expressed ___ and __
somatically and viscerally
Memory of event is encoded in the__ and __
amygdala and cortex
memory of event is enhanced by
locus coerelus regulates the
Locus Coeruleus is connected to...
pvn of hypothalamus
amygdala and limbic
paraventricular nucleus of the thalamus
Locus Coeruleus --> solitary n. -->
visceral motor center for heart rate
LC --> pag -->
fight to flight
____ drives PVN/HPA axis
LC --> Amygdala & Limbic Cortex (cingulate, insular, orbitofrontal) -->
The Raphe Nuclei project from midbrain to ___
___ disfunction leads to conduct disorders, criminal psychopathy, other
In patients with severe depression, ___ shows decreased glucose metabolism /
anterior cingulate cortex
Risk factor for depression: No ____ control of amygdala = increased fear and anxiety.
anterior cingulate control
SSRIS bind strongly to the
anterior cingulate cortex
deep brain stimulation can create substantial improvement in people with intractable depression if electrodes are placed near the
acc and amygdala
___ is involved in AFFECT
Anterior cingulate cortex
___ cortex is involved in motivated behavior and response selection
____ has extensive projections to the striatum, red nucleus, pontine nuclei (cerebellum), and cranial nerve motor nuclei for somatomotor driving of alpha motor neurons.
a very impotant connection in pyshiatry
the amygdala has reciprocal projections to the
PET studies show activation in ___ when remembering sad events.
Electrical simulation of the _____ produces complex motor outputs (that can be modified by context)
faical region in the acc projects to the
facial motor n. and the muscles of facial expression
facial region in the ___ of the cingualte cortex
what do the reciptocal connections between the LC and the 1. amygadla and 2. cingulate cortex do?
involved in consolidation of emotional memories
storage of emotionall vlanece memories in the amygdala and acc depends on ___
norepineprine release by LC
how does locus corelus intercedes in limbic systems to coordinate motor outputs.
what structures are in the limbic lobe? (3)