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Flashcards in Limbic System Lec16 Deck (66):
1

parts of the papez circuit actually involved in emotions

cingulate cortex and the hypothalamus

2

Areas of the limbic system involved in emotional processing

amygdala, anterior and mid-cingulate cortex, mediodorsal nucleus of the thalamus and prefrontal cortex.

3

Primary emotions are reflexive and involve the (3)

amygdala, hypothalamus, and PAG

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4

what primarily drives primary emotions?

 

the amygdala ---- which gets input from the auditory pathway (or visual) via the thalamus as well as directly from the auditory pathway. 

5

___ emotions are conscious 

Secondary

6

secondary emotions and involve the ___

cortical limbic structures

7

Stimulation of the___ with norepinephrine induces the fight or flight response

 dorsolateral portion of the PAG

8

. Stimulation of the ___ portion of PAG with norepinephrine leads to  hypoactivity

ventral

9

Since the ___ nuclei project to the PAG, you can also stimulate the ___ nuclei for the same effect. 

hypothalamic

10

You need the ___ and ___ to regulate emotions.  

 

If you get a stroke or tumor to either one of these regions you lose control of your emotions and can result in sham rage (excessive rage without external control)

hypothalamus or the PAG

11

. Only th___ and ___ cingulate cortex play a role in emotional processing. 

cingulate cortex

12

is the posterior cingualte cortex ivnovled in emotion?

no

13

. It may be useful to think of serotonin as mood ___ 

altering

14

. It may be useful to think of norepinpehrine as mood 

elevating

15

what is included in the papez circuit

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16

___ is the synapse site of the limbic system in the thalamus

mediodorsal n. 

17

primary emotions are linked with ___ reflexes

autonomic 

18

If a monkey’s temporal lobe / amygdala was removed, the animal became (4)

1. docile


2. hyperoral

3. hypersexual

4. and ate inappropriate items.

19

Urbach-Wiethe disease = what is the cause and what are the sx?

calcification & loss of amygdala
 

1. no fear response

2. can’t recognize fear in faces

3. risky behaviors

20

Fear response involves direct connections from 

thalamus to amygdala

21

 Shown by auditory-foot shock conditioning experiment. Even if amygdala/
auditory cortex connection was cut,

fear was still present

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22

Amygdala connects to __ and __ for fight-or-flight response

PAG and LC

23

Stimulation of ___ PAG = fight-or-flight,

Dorsal

24

lesion of Dorsal PAG

affective defense & "sham rage"

 

25

lesion fo ventral pag

quiet, biting

26

All major emotion structures are connected to
the __

 PAG

27

The PAG regulates ANS via

soliary n.

dorsal mtoor fo vagus

IML

28

The hypothalamus-pituitary axis (HPA) is driven by the (3)

amygdala, limbic cortex, & locus
coeruleus

29

Amygdala / Insula / Limbic Cortex (ACC) --> Paraventricular Nucleus (PVN) of hypothalamus -->

CRH

30

the amygdala projects to which cingulate cortex?

the ACC and anterior MCC

31

the ___ region of the cingulate cortex (around the genu of the corpus callosum) is extra
vulnerable to emotional diseases like depression

perigenual

32

anterior cingulate cortex connects the ans to the

solitary n. and dosal mtoor of vagus

33

emotion associated with ventral acc

sadness

34

emotion associated with rostral acc

hapiness

35

"Facial Region" of the ACC is impacted by what emotions

all of them

36

emotiona ssociated witht the anterior mid cingualte cortex

fear

37

Electrical stimulation of the MCC evokes complex motor responses like (3)

lip puckering, finger kneading, and bilateral limb movements

38

fear response

input goes directlyfrom the thalamus to the

amygdala --> fear response

39

fear response

thalamus -> amygdala -->

 ACC (upstream) and the PAG and LC (downstream pathways)

40

thalamus --> amygdala -->  ACC (upstream) and the PAG (downstream pathways) --> both faical. n and facial expression activated so fear is expressed ___ and __

somatically and viscerally

41

fear response

Memory of event is encoded in the__ and __

 amygdala and cortex 

42

fear response 

memory of event is enhanced by

norepinpehrine

43

locus coerelus regulates the

hpa axis 

44

Locus Coeruleus is connected to...

 

solitary ncuelus

pag 

pvn of hypothalamus

amygdala and limbic 

paraventricular nucleus of the thalamus

45

Locus Coeruleus --> solitary n. --> 

visceral motor center for heart rate

46

LC --> pag --> 

fight to flight

47

____ drives PVN/HPA axis

LC/NE

48

LC --> Amygdala & Limbic Cortex (cingulate, insular, orbitofrontal) --> 

enhance emotional
memory formation

49

The Raphe Nuclei project from midbrain to ___ 

forebrain

50

___ disfunction leads to conduct disorders, criminal psychopathy, other
sociopathies, PTSD

Limbic system 

51

In patients with severe depression, ___ shows decreased glucose metabolism /
reduced activity

anterior cingulate cortex

52

Risk factor for depression: No ____ control of amygdala = increased fear and anxiety.

anterior cingulate control

53

SSRIS bind strongly to the

anterior cingulate cortex

54

deep brain stimulation can create substantial improvement in people with intractable depression if electrodes are placed near the 

acc and amygdala

55

___  is involved in AFFECT

Anterior cingulate cortex

56

___ cortex  is involved in motivated behavior and response selection

Midcingulate

57

____ has extensive projections to the striatum, red nucleus, pontine nuclei (cerebellum), and cranial nerve motor nuclei for somatomotor driving of alpha motor neurons.

midcingualte cortex

58

a very impotant connection in pyshiatry

the amygdala has reciprocal projections to the

acc

59

PET studies show activation in ___ when remembering sad events.

ACC

60

Electrical simulation of the _____ produces complex motor outputs (that can be modified by context)

MCC

A image thumb
61

faical region in the acc projects to the

facial motor n. and the muscles of facial expression

 

62

facial region in the ___ of the cingualte cortex

acc

63

what do the reciptocal connections between the LC and the 1. amygadla and 2. cingulate cortex do?

involved in consolidation of emotional memories

64

storage of emotionall vlanece memories in the amygdala and acc depends on ___

norepineprine release by LC

65

how does locus corelus intercedes in limbic systems to coordinate motor outputs.

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66

what structures are in the limbic lobe? (3)

Q image thumb

cingulate cortex

parahippocampal gyri

olfactoruy cortex