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Flashcards in Nociception Deck (56):
1

Nociceptors exist as free nerve endings activated only when the stimulus is ___.

strong enough to cause damage. 

2

___ nociceptors have fast responses

thermal/mechanical

3

___ nociceptors are myelinated

thermal/mechanical

4

___ nociceptors are unmeylinated

polymodal

5

thermal/mechanical noiceptors are assocaited with ___ pain

sharp, prickling pain

6

polymodal nociceptors are assocaited with

with high intensity mechanical, chemical, hot, and cold stimuli.

7

Nociceptive specific neurons are found in___of the spinal cord

 Lamina 1 

8

nocipceptive specific neurons have ___ receptor fields

small

9

nocieptive specific neurons carry

only info about noceipcetion

10

. Wide dynamic range neurons (WDR) are found in ___ of the spinal cord

Lamina 5 

11

Wide dynamic range neurons  carry information

from both mechanoreceptors and noiceptors

12

Wide dynamic range neurons have ___ receptor fields

larger

13

. hyperalgesia is what happens when you have increased sensitivity to the ____.

surrounding unharmed region of a damaged area

14

with hyperalgesia Subsequent stimuli result in the 

enhanced sensation of pain 

15

referred pain is the result of a ____

 lack of nociceptive output neurons in the dorsal horn that are dedicated to visceral pain

16

dissociated sensory loss is when you have reduced sensation of epicritic sensation in the opposite side of the body from where you have ___.

reduced sensation of temperature and pain

17

Pain modulation can occur as the result of the descending pathway synapsing with 

an opiate containing interneuron

18

The opiate containing interneruon synapses with the ascending pathway in the dorsal horn releasing enkephalin that dampens 

both presynaptic and postsynaptic neurons

19

pain vs. noiception?

pain is a psychological perception

20

where are the cell bodies of noiceptors? 

located in the dorsal root and trigeminal ganglia.

21

Nociceptors exist as free nerve endings that do not have ___

peripheral structures

22

____ nociceptors have small-diameter, thinly myelinated A

thermal/mechanical

23

___ noiceptors have small- diameter, unmyelinated C fibers 

polymodal

24

 If the stimulus intensity is raised to a level that activates A

 tingling sensation

25

If the stimulus intensity is raised to a level that activates A

sharp pain

26

 If the stimulus intensity is increased further, so that the small-diameter, slowly conducting C fiber axons then a a ___ is experienced.

duller, longer-lasting sensation of pain

27

The vanilloid receptor TrpV1 is found in both___ fibers

 C and A

28

TRPv1 is Activated by stimuli such as (3)

capsaicin, heat, acids and anandamide

29

___ receptors may respond to endogenous chemicals similar to capsaicin that are released with peripheral injury

TrpV1

30

in the flare region following hyperalgesia, ___ drops dramatically

threshold sensitivity

31

The release of ___ ___ and ___ , and other agents from the site of injury enhances the responsiveness of nociceptive endings

bradykinin, histamine, prostaglandins

 

*these make protect yoiu from contuoally hurting yourself 

32

 Electrical activity in the nociceptors also stimulates the local release of chemical substances (such as substance P) that cause __, ___, and ___

vasodilation, swelling, and the release of histamine from mast cells.

33

aspirin and other NSAIDS act by inhibiting cyclooxygenase, an enzyme important in the biosynthesis of ___

prostaglandins

34

Local pain can be sensed even when nociceptive pathways are damaged bc

 

pain can arise spontaneously in the 

absence of activity in nociceptors.

35

branches of A and C noceiptive fibers descend for a few segments as part of the ___ when they enter the spinal cord

dorsolateral tract

36

Nociceptive fibers terminate primarily in the ___

superficial dorsal horn  (lamina 1 and 2)

37

Few if any neurons in the dorsal horn are specific to conveying ___ pain

visceral

38

Referred pain is the displacement of pain from a visceral structure such as to a somatic area of the body because of the convergence of visceral and cutaneous nociceptors onto the same ____ projection neurons

dorsal horn

39

ureteral pain (like in passing a kidney stone) referred to ___ and ___

lower abdomen and back

40

bladder pain referred to the ___

perineum

41

Prostate pain with a characteristic distribution

 above and below the effected side

42

Axons from the  from ganglia associated with nerves ___ carry information from facial nociceptors and thermoreceptors 

5, 7, 9, 10

43

The major target nuclei of the ascending pain and temperature axons are the ___ of the thalamus

vpl and vpm

44

Somatosensory cortex receives nociceptive information from ____ of the thalamus.

VPN

45

how are nocipceptive inpurs organized in the cortex?

No orderly arrangement 

46

Neurons in the ___ make inhibitory connections in laminae I, II, and V of the dorsal horn (these laminae are also the site of termination of nociceptive afferent neurons)

rostroventral medulla 

47

Electrical stimulation of___ or ___results in the inhibition of dorsal horn neurons that respond to noxious stimulation.

 periaquedcutal gray or rostroventral medulla 

48

Electrical stimulation in either the PAG or rostroventral medulla results in the inhibition of dorsal horn neurons that respond to noxious stimulation.

 

this effect cna be eliminated with X of the 

 dorsolateral funiculus (which is carrying this descending information)

49

Administration of low doses of opiates directly into  __ and ___ produce analgesia

PAG and rostroventral medulla 

50

The descending inhibition of spinothalamic tract neurons appears to be mediated by the activation of ____ interneurons in the dorsal horn.

enkephalin

51

 The descending axons of serotonergic and noradrenergic neurons from the nucleus raphe  contact (2)

1. dendrites of ALS neurons

2. inhbiitory neurons in superficial dorsal horn

52

The ___ contains a high density of enkephalin- and dynorphin-containing interneurons 

superficial dorsal horn

53

opiates and opioid peptides regulate nociceptive transmission by releasing 

 glutamate, substance P, and other transmitters

54

 Neurons in the periaqueductal gray matter make excitatory connections in
the___

 rostroventral medulla

55

Opiate receptors are located both on the

 terminals of nociceptive afferents
and on the dendrites of postsynaptic neurons.

56

 Opiates also act postsynaptically at afferent synapses to suppress the
activity of ___

nociceptive dorsal horn neurons.