Cortical Control of Movement Lec21 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Cortical Control of Movement Lec21 Deck (59)
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1

A disproportionate area of the motor cortex is devoted to control of the ___ and ___

hand and fingers

2

The "indirect pathway" from cortex to spinal cord enables ___ postural adjustments.

feed-forward

3

The "indirect pathway" from cortex to spinal cord plays an important role in ___

weight shifts

4

Functionally similar and non-adjacent columns are interconnected by interneurons within the____.

motor cortex.

5

Cortical areas that plan and initiate motor sequences comprise several ___ distinct but highly interconnected regions.

functionally

6

Proper motor control requires (3)

timing, position, and physical characteristics of body and muscles

7

brainstem centers are involved with basic movements and ___ conrol

postural

8

____ Motor Pathways can be direct or indirect:

Descending

9

Direct descending motor pathway is from cortex straight to ___

LMNs

10

Indirect descending motor pathway synapse on

brainstem interneurons

11

both direct and indirect synapse on the

ventral horn of the spinal cord

12

the proportion of direct vs. indirect terminations varies between species and changes with ___

age/ development

13

indirect pathway UMNs --> ___ --> interneurons

anteromedial white matter (rubrospinal and extrapyramidal tracts)

14

indirect pathway Indirect: brainstem UMNs --> anteromedial white matter (rubrospinal and extrapyramidal tracts) --> interneurons --> ___ muscles

axial and proximal muscles

15

Long distance interneurons are medial or ventral

medial

16

Long distance interneurons are medial, go to ___ muscles

proximal

17

Short distance interneurons are lateral, go to ___ muscles

distal

18

direct pathway goes to ___ muscles

distal

19

name 4 indirect pathways

1. tectospinal

2. reticulospinal

3. rubrospinal

4. vestibulospinal

20

tectospinal is involved with__ and __

 axial and midline body orientation

21

rubrospinal is involved with___ controls

distal control, mainly arm flexion

22

vestibulospinal modifies

reflexes, central pattern generators

23

which indirect pathways modify reflexes?

vestibulo and reticuno

24

___ pathway modifies antigravity muscles

reticulospinal

25

example of direct pathways

Ventral & Lateral Corticospinals (to body), and Corticobulbar (to face)

26

Most direct corticomotor innervation comes from the___

primary motor cortex (M1)

27

in the cortex Motor units are controlled by___ or ___ cells

Betz cells or other large, non-Betz pyramidal cells

28

Lateral premotor cortex is involved in

selection of motor responses based one xternal cues

29

Medial premotor cortex is involved with

learned sequences, repsonse to intenral cues

30

supplementary mtoor area and the cingulate motor area are found in the

medial premotor cortex