What are the small molecule NT? *
2. amino acids -- glutamate, gaba, glycine
3. biogenic amines -- dopamine, norepinephrine, serontonin
what are the amiunoacid NT?
gaba, gluamate, glycine
what are the biogenic amine NT?
dopamine, norepinephrine, serotonin
how many different neuropeptides are there
more than 100 different peptides
neuropeptides are typically ___ amino acids long
what are the two major classes of NT?
small moelcule and neuropetides
The concentration of neurotransmitter within the synaptic cleft is tightly controlled via regulation of:
synthesis, packaging, release, and removal
where are small moelcule NT made?
how are small NT packaged into vesicles?
by specific transport proteins in the vesicle membrane
where are neuropeptide NT made and packaged?
within the cell body
how are vesicles of enruopeptides transported to the nerve terminal?
via fast axonal transport
___ neurotransmitters can respond very rapidly?
are right there in the synaptic terminal to respond quickly
___ neurotransmitter release must be carefully regulated to prevent depletion.
ionotropic receptors are ____ gated ion channels that open in response to ligand bonding
how many subunits do ionotropic chanels contain? how many transmembrane domains does each subunit contain?
5 subunits; 3-4 transmembrane domains
how is diversity established with ionotropic NT?
muleiple subunits are assembled in different orders
metabotropic coupled receptors activate ___ in response to ligand binding
activated G-proteins modulate ion channels either
directly or indirectly
how many transmembrane domains does each monmeric metabotropic receptor have?
7 transmembrane domains
what are the functions of acetylcholine in the CNS?
Attention, arousal, reward plasticity.
Enhances sensory functions upon waking
Damage to cholinergic system is associated with the ___
memory defecits in AD
where is acetylcholien found in the peripheral NS?
synapses in ganglia of the visceral motor system
how is AcH synthesized?
enzymatically in nerve terminal from acetyl-CoA and
how is acetylcholine removed from the synaptic cleft?
via cleavage to acetate and choline by acetylcholinesterase
after degradation, how is more acetylcholine made?
choline is taken up by nerve terminal via a specific transporter and is used to synthesize more Ach
how are Organophosphates such as some insecticides and nerve gas hamrful to humans?
inhibit acetylcholinesterase causing ACh to accumulate at cholinergic synapses.
what is the result of organophasopates (nerve gases and insectisides) causing acetylcholine build up at the NMJ?
causes muscle paralysis
___ ach receptors mediate most acetylcholine effects in the brain?
scopolamine and atropine are
metabotropic achetylcholine anatagonists
what are the symptoms of myasthenia gravis?