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Flashcards in Cerebellum Lec22 Deck (81)
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1
Q

what are the deep nuclei in the vermis?

A

fastigial n. 

vestibular n.

2
Q

motor function of the vermis and fastigial?

A

balance, eye movement, reflexes

3
Q

cogntiive function of the fastigial and vestibular n. ?

A

autonomic arousal, limbic regulation

4
Q

Nulcei in the paravermal hemisphere?

A

globose and emboliform

5
Q

moor function of the globose and emboliform (intemediate paravermal hemisphere)?

A

sensorimotor integration, movement execution

6
Q

sensory function of the  globose and emboliform  hemisphere (intemediate paravermal hemisphere)?

A

simple verbal

responses to commands

7
Q

nuclei in the lateral hemisphere?

A

dentate

8
Q

motot function of the dentate gyrus?

A

prepration and planning of movement

fine motor dexterity

eye movements

imagined movements

9
Q

cognitive  function of thedentate gyrus

A

verbal associaiton

rule based learning

working memory

problem solving

monitoring performance

temporal perception

10
Q

main inputs into the cerebellum? (3)

A

1. cerebrocerebellum: frontal and parietal

2. vestibular nuclei

3. spinocerebellar

11
Q

where does the frontal/parietal lobes contribute to?

A

mostly the lateral hemispheres (think planning movements)

12
Q

where does the spinal cord input to in the cerebellum?

A

vermis/some hemisphere

13
Q

where do the vestibular nuclei input to in the cerebellum?

A

into the nodulus/flocculus

14
Q

What is the cerebellum (in terms of cellular components)

A

The cerebellum = cerebellar cortex + deep nuclei + white matter tracts

15
Q

How many layers does the cerebellar cortex have? what are they?

A

3 layers: Molecular, Purkinje cell, and Granule cell

16
Q

The cell bodies of most mossy fibers entering the cerebellum are located in the ____

A

pons

17
Q

The expansion of the lateral cerebellar hemisphere in humans indicates that  the cerebellum is capable of ___

A

contributing to more than just motor function

18
Q

___ shows prominent activation during
extremely difficult problem solving tasks in humans? 

A

Dentate nucleus

19
Q

The appearance of oscillating movements of the hand while reaching toward a target is
referred to as ___

A

intention tremor

20
Q

The use of ethanol to control symptoms of essential tremor is effective because  ethanol (2)

A

 1. inhibits normal excitation

2. facilitates GABAergic function

21
Q

which cerebellar n. is involved in 

autonomic arousal, limbic regulation

A

fastigal and vestibular

22
Q

which cerebellar n. is involved in

simple verbal respponses to commands

A

globose and emboliform

23
Q

which cerebellar n. is involved in

rule based learning, problem solving, temporal perception etc

A

dentate

24
Q

which cerebellar n. is involved in

preparation and planning of movements

A

dentate

25
Q

which cerebellar n. is involved in

sensoriomotr integration, movement ececution

A

globlose and emboliform

26
Q

where are radial (bergmann) glial cells found

A

in the purkinje and moelcular layers of the cerebellar cortex

27
Q

where are bushy astroglia found

A

in the granule layer

28
Q

where are olgiodendrocytes found

A

in the white matter

29
Q

where do purkinje cells project to

A

the deep cerebellar nuclei

30
Q

____ - wrap around one Purkinje cell

A

Climbing fibers

31
Q

Mossy fibers - synapse with one ___ cell

A

granule

32
Q

inputs to mossy fibers

A

pontine nuclei

reticular formation

spinal cord

vestibular nuclei

33
Q

purkinje cell has ___ input on the deep cerebellar nuclei

A

gaba

34
Q

climbing fibers gets input from the

A

inferior olive

35
Q

input to purkinje

A

inferior olive (via climbing fibers)

granule cells (via parallel)

cortical neurons (basket, stellate)

36
Q

what cells are located in the purkinje layer

A

purkinje

basket

stellate

 

37
Q

what cells are located in the granular layer

A

golgi

granule

38
Q

what do granule cells project to

A

(other cerebellar cortical cells)

purkinje

basket

stellate

golgi

39
Q

input to granule layer

A

pontine and brainstem nuclei via mossy fibers

40
Q

granule cells are excitatory or inhibitory

A

excitatory

41
Q

purkinje are inhbhitory or excitateory

A

inhibitory

42
Q

parvocellular Red Nucleus inputs into the

A

inferior olive

43
Q

 magnocellular Red Nucleus gets input from the

A

deep nuclei

44
Q

deep nuclei project to

A

red nucleus 

thalamus

cortex (eventually)

interneurons

45
Q

deep nuclei ___ the thalamus and motor cortex

A

stimulate

46
Q

the purkinje layer is ___ on the dentate nucleus

A

inhibiotry

47
Q

2 types of APs in the cerebellum

A

simple and complex spikes

48
Q

 Simple spikes - normal action potentials with ___ depolarization and repolarization

A

rapid

49
Q

___ spikes are elated to moment-to-moment changes in behavior, including “efference copy”

A

simple

50
Q

simple spikes are produced by ___ fiber activation

A

mossy fiber

 mossy fibers --> Granule cells --> parallel fibers --> Purkinje cells

51
Q

___ is expected information coming back from the same body part used

A

reafference

52
Q

Complex spikes - ____ depolarizations of 20+ milliseconds

A

extended

53
Q

Complex spikes - extended depolarizations of 20+ milliseconds, during which time about___ action potentials are fired,

A

 5

54
Q

triggered by ____ fibers from the inferior olive

A

climbing

55
Q

complex spikes are  related to

A

 unexpected stimuli / error signals

56
Q

what is the cellular basis for cerebellar learnign

A

long term depresion

57
Q

after and during  a __ spike, the purkinje cell is refractory to parallel fiber activation

A

complex

58
Q

after and during  a complex spike, the ___ cell is refractory to parallel fiber activation

A

purkinje

59
Q

after and during  a complex spike, the purkinje cell is refractory to parallel fiber activation which is ____

A

long term depression

60
Q

rapid learning.. e.g. error signal alerts you to destabilization, then reflex could shut of.. this rapid learning needs the ___

 

A

cerebellum

61
Q

cerebellar lesions leads to what triad? 

A

Asthenia (loss of muscle strength)

Atonia (loss of muscle tone)

and Ataxia (problem with executing voluntary movements)

62
Q

Asynergia: difficulty ___ muscular actions

A

coordinating

63
Q

Decomposition of movement: complex actions broken down into 

A

single joint
actions

64
Q

___: poorly directed movements that often miss their targets

A

Dsymetria

65
Q

___ speech: staccato and problematic articulation

A

Scanning

66
Q

Cerebellum has both motor and non-motor outputs!

lesion of PICA --> no motor symptoms, but failures in ___

A

rule-based language tasks
seen. 

67
Q

nonmotor functions of the cerebellum

A

language, verbal working memory, sequence learning, error detection,
explicit memory retrieval, planning, classical conditioning

68
Q

Mild to moderate damage, the cerebellum 

A

resets and compensates on its own

69
Q

Severe damage, can only give 

A

palliative/supportive care

70
Q

 Essential Tremors (ET) can be treated by ___ or ___

A

alcohol/barbituates or deep brain
stimulation

71
Q

for tx of essential tremor, alcohol acts as a ___ and a ___

A

glutamate anatagonist

and a gaba agonist

72
Q

Cerebellar insults include (4) disorders

A

chronic dilantin medication, autism, schizophrenia, chronic
alcohol abuse / thiamine deficiency

73
Q

what excitatory inputs/output on to the depe nuclei does alcohol effect

A

inferior olive imnput

and output to the thalamus

74
Q

what inhibitory inputs/output on to the depe nuclei does alcohol effect

A

gaba to deep nuclei

75
Q

atxia is a generalized disorder of

A

coordianting and excuting voltunary movements

76
Q

Deviation from the line of movement: movement doesn’t 

A

follow the shortest line
between 2 points

77
Q

there are multiple representations of different body parts
across the cerebellum showing that the cerebellum has

A

somatopy

78
Q

the cerebellum uses error signals to ____ commands for mvoement to optimize outcomes

 

A

adaptively modify

79
Q

Lesion lateral rectus of one eye, then patch good eye
--> Error signal generated 

A

Cerebellum turns up gain from bad eye --> Increased signal / eye gets stronger

80
Q

Lesions of cerebellum produce IMPAIRMENTS IN ___ of movements and other functions,

A

QUALITY

81
Q

Lesions of cerebellum produce IMPAIRMENTS IN QUALITY of movements and other functions, but not a 

A

loss of function.