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Flashcards in Cerebellum Lec22 Deck (81):
1

what are the deep nuclei in the vermis?

fastigial n. 

vestibular n.

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2

motor function of the vermis and fastigial?

balance, eye movement, reflexes

3

cogntiive function of the fastigial and vestibular n. ?

autonomic arousal, limbic regulation

4

Nulcei in the paravermal hemisphere?

globose and emboliform

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5

moor function of the globose and emboliform (intemediate paravermal hemisphere)?

sensorimotor integration, movement execution

6

sensory function of the  globose and emboliform  hemisphere (intemediate paravermal hemisphere)?

simple verbal

responses to commands

7

nuclei in the lateral hemisphere?

dentate

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8

motot function of the dentate gyrus?

prepration and planning of movement

fine motor dexterity

eye movements

imagined movements

9

cognitive  function of thedentate gyrus

verbal associaiton

rule based learning

working memory

problem solving

monitoring performance

temporal perception

10

main inputs into the cerebellum? (3)

1. cerebrocerebellum: frontal and parietal

2. vestibular nuclei

3. spinocerebellar

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11

where does the frontal/parietal lobes contribute to?

mostly the lateral hemispheres (think planning movements)

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12

where does the spinal cord input to in the cerebellum?

vermis/some hemisphere

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13

where do the vestibular nuclei input to in the cerebellum?

into the nodulus/flocculus

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14

What is the cerebellum (in terms of cellular components)

The cerebellum = cerebellar cortex + deep nuclei + white matter tracts

15

How many layers does the cerebellar cortex have? what are they?

3 layers: Molecular, Purkinje cell, and Granule cell

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16

The cell bodies of most mossy fibers entering the cerebellum are located in the ____

pons

17

The expansion of the lateral cerebellar hemisphere in humans indicates that  the cerebellum is capable of ___

contributing to more than just motor function

18

___ shows prominent activation during
extremely difficult problem solving tasks in humans? 

Dentate nucleus

19

The appearance of oscillating movements of the hand while reaching toward a target is
referred to as ___

intention tremor

20

The use of ethanol to control symptoms of essential tremor is effective because  ethanol (2)

 1. inhibits normal excitation

2. facilitates GABAergic function

21

which cerebellar n. is involved in 

autonomic arousal, limbic regulation

fastigal and vestibular

22

which cerebellar n. is involved in

simple verbal respponses to commands

globose and emboliform

23

which cerebellar n. is involved in

rule based learning, problem solving, temporal perception etc

dentate

24

which cerebellar n. is involved in

preparation and planning of movements

dentate

25

which cerebellar n. is involved in

sensoriomotr integration, movement ececution

globlose and emboliform

26

where are radial (bergmann) glial cells found

in the purkinje and moelcular layers of the cerebellar cortex

27

where are bushy astroglia found

in the granule layer

28

where are olgiodendrocytes found

in the white matter

29

where do purkinje cells project to

the deep cerebellar nuclei

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30

____ - wrap around one Purkinje cell

Climbing fibers

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31

Mossy fibers - synapse with one ___ cell

granule

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32

inputs to mossy fibers

pontine nuclei

reticular formation

spinal cord

vestibular nuclei

33

purkinje cell has ___ input on the deep cerebellar nuclei

gaba

34

climbing fibers gets input from the

inferior olive

35

input to purkinje

inferior olive (via climbing fibers)

granule cells (via parallel)

cortical neurons (basket, stellate)

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36

what cells are located in the purkinje layer

purkinje

basket

stellate

 

37

what cells are located in the granular layer

golgi

granule

38

what do granule cells project to

(other cerebellar cortical cells)

purkinje

basket

stellate

golgi

39

input to granule layer

pontine and brainstem nuclei via mossy fibers

40

granule cells are excitatory or inhibitory

excitatory

41

purkinje are inhbhitory or excitateory

inhibitory

42

parvocellular Red Nucleus inputs into the

inferior olive

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43

 magnocellular Red Nucleus gets input from the

deep nuclei

44

deep nuclei project to

red nucleus 

thalamus

cortex (eventually)

interneurons

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45

deep nuclei ___ the thalamus and motor cortex

stimulate

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46

the purkinje layer is ___ on the dentate nucleus

inhibiotry

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47

2 types of APs in the cerebellum

simple and complex spikes

48

 Simple spikes - normal action potentials with ___ depolarization and repolarization

rapid

49

___ spikes are elated to moment-to-moment changes in behavior, including “efference copy”

simple

50

simple spikes are produced by ___ fiber activation

mossy fiber

 mossy fibers --> Granule cells --> parallel fibers --> Purkinje cells

51

___ is expected information coming back from the same body part used

reafference

52

Complex spikes - ____ depolarizations of 20+ milliseconds

extended

53

Complex spikes - extended depolarizations of 20+ milliseconds, during which time about___ action potentials are fired,

 5

54

triggered by ____ fibers from the inferior olive

climbing

55

complex spikes are  related to

 unexpected stimuli / error signals

56

what is the cellular basis for cerebellar learnign

long term depresion

57

after and during  a __ spike, the purkinje cell is refractory to parallel fiber activation

complex

58

after and during  a complex spike, the ___ cell is refractory to parallel fiber activation

purkinje

59

after and during  a complex spike, the purkinje cell is refractory to parallel fiber activation which is ____

long term depression

60

rapid learning.. e.g. error signal alerts you to destabilization, then reflex could shut of.. this rapid learning needs the ___

 

cerebellum

61

cerebellar lesions leads to what triad? 

Asthenia (loss of muscle strength)

Atonia (loss of muscle tone)

and Ataxia (problem with executing voluntary movements)

62

Asynergia: difficulty ___ muscular actions

coordinating

63

Decomposition of movement: complex actions broken down into 

single joint
actions

64

___: poorly directed movements that often miss their targets

Dsymetria

65

___ speech: staccato and problematic articulation

Scanning

66

Cerebellum has both motor and non-motor outputs!

lesion of PICA --> no motor symptoms, but failures in ___

rule-based language tasks
seen. 

67

nonmotor functions of the cerebellum

language, verbal working memory, sequence learning, error detection,
explicit memory retrieval, planning, classical conditioning

68

Mild to moderate damage, the cerebellum 

resets and compensates on its own

69

Severe damage, can only give 

palliative/supportive care

70

 Essential Tremors (ET) can be treated by ___ or ___

alcohol/barbituates or deep brain
stimulation

71

for tx of essential tremor, alcohol acts as a ___ and a ___

glutamate anatagonist

and a gaba agonist

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72

Cerebellar insults include (4) disorders

chronic dilantin medication, autism, schizophrenia, chronic
alcohol abuse / thiamine deficiency

73

what excitatory inputs/output on to the depe nuclei does alcohol effect

inferior olive imnput

and output to the thalamus

74

what inhibitory inputs/output on to the depe nuclei does alcohol effect

gaba to deep nuclei

75

atxia is a generalized disorder of

coordianting and excuting voltunary movements

76

Deviation from the line of movement: movement doesn’t 

follow the shortest line
between 2 points

77

there are multiple representations of different body parts
across the cerebellum showing that the cerebellum has

somatopy

78

the cerebellum uses error signals to ____ commands for mvoement to optimize outcomes

 

adaptively modify

79

Lesion lateral rectus of one eye, then patch good eye
--> Error signal generated 

Cerebellum turns up gain from bad eye --> Increased signal / eye gets stronger

80

Lesions of cerebellum produce IMPAIRMENTS IN ___ of movements and other functions,

QUALITY

81

Lesions of cerebellum produce IMPAIRMENTS IN QUALITY of movements and other functions, but not a 

loss of function.