Learning and Memory Lec07 Flashcards Preview

Neuroscience > Learning and Memory Lec07 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Learning and Memory Lec07 Deck (41):
1

____ memories are available to consciousness: daily episodes, words and meanings, history

Declarative

2

where are declarative memories stored on the short term

hippocampus

3

where are declarative memories stored on the long term

cortical sites

A image thumb
4

where are nondeclarative memories stored on the short term 

their storage is diffuse throughout the brain

5

where is long term sotrage of nondeclatative memory

cerebellum basal ganglia, promotors cortex, other motor behavior sites

6

The ___ is needed for declarative memory

hippocampus

7

Patient RB: bilateral brain damage to area CA1 of the hippocampus

 

how was her memory imapirment compared to HM?

 similar to but less severe than HM’s

8

What is Consolidation 

acquisition and storage of declarative memory

9

what does consolidation involve? 

 transfer from
hippocampus to cortical structures

10

Long term memory (ENGRAM) depends on changes in 

synaptic transmission efficacy

11

 LTP is ___ specific

input

12

___ ion channel is critical to LTP

NMDA receptor 

13

what does NMDAR need to open? 

1. lignad binding

2. coagonist glycine

3. sufficient depoalrization to kick out Mg

14

LTP strengthening mechanisms:

1. Insertion of more AMPA post synaptic
receptors


2. More pre synaptic vesicles = increased
Glu release = longer channel open
time
3. Metabotropic Glu (mGlu) receptors
activated
--> kinases. IP3 promotes release of intracellular Ca, PKC enhances NMDA currents

4. New synaptic (dendritic) spines grown


5. Protein synthesis

15

if ___ is blocked by anisomycin,  LTP decays within a few hours of the tetanus stimulus

protein syntehsis

16

long term depression results in a 

long term decrease in synaptic strength 

17

 when Shaffer collateral-CA1 synapses are stimulated at a low rate (1 Hz) for long periods (10-15 min) what happens? 

EPSP is depressed for several hours

18

Can LTD effect LTP? 

-LTD can erase LTP, and vice versa

19

____ is not avaialble to conciousness

nondeclarative memory

20

• Working memory is the ability to hold & manipulate information in mind for___ to ___ while it is used to achieve a particular goal 

 seconds to minutes

21

what are 3 important areas for declarative memory

1. hippocampus

2. medial temporal lobe structures

3. midline diencephalic regions

22

___ is a model for declarative memory

LTP

23

Pyramidal CA3 neurons in hippocampus send axons (Schaffer collaterals) to synapse on___

 pyramidal CA1 neurons.

A image thumb
24

Ltp

A baseline recording is established by providing a low-frequency & low-intensity stimulus such as when

only ampa receptors are activated

25

pathway 1 -- high frequency and high intensity stimulus

pathway 2 -- low intensity and low freqeuncy stimulus 

what is observed in pathway 1? 

ltp

a strengthening of the EPSP after returning to the low-frequency & low-intensity stimulus

26

add AP-5 or MK-801 during tetatnus. what effect on ltp?

these are ndma anatagonist so block ltp

27

add AP-5 or MK-801 after tetatnus. what effect on ltp?

ltp occurs 

28

NMDA receptor activation is required for ___ of LTP.

INDUCTION

29

: PKC and CaMKII diffuse across synapse and cause

enhanced release of glutamate after terminal depoalrization

30

PKA and CaMKII increase AMPA receptor currents by insertion of ___

additional AMPA receptors

31

PKC and PTK increase ___ currents.

NMDA

32

 long-term LTP in hippocampus requires ___ and ____

gene transcription and protein translation

33

how are kinases involved in ltp? 

1. kinases diffuse to the CA1 cell nuclei influencing genes that trigger long- lasting post-synaptic modifications

2. In the presynaptic terminals kinases   influence genes that cause presynaptic structural modifications (not shown).

34

Electron microscopic studies show that LTP induction causes an increase in the numbers of ___ on dendritic shafts 

synapses

35

ltd is dependent on

nmda receptors

36

ltd is specific to

input

37

how do ltd and ltp differ?

1. with ca signals

ltp -- kinases are activated

ltd -- phosphatases are activated

2. ltd is associated with itnerlization of ampa receptors

 

38

ltp is associated with the ___ of ampa receptors

insertion of ampa receptors into postsynaptic membrane

39

ltd is associated with the ___ of ampa receptors

internalization

40

weak stimulation in CA1 (Ltd) results in ___in intracellular calcium

small increases 

 

this leads to activation of phostpahatse

41

ltd or ltp involvs activation of phosphatases?

ltd