Abdomen Lecture Notes Pt. 2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Abdomen Lecture Notes Pt. 2 Deck (88):
1

Receives tributaries from the SMV and IMV

Hepatic Portal Vein

2

The umbilicus and iliac crest are located at L4, but their cutaneous dermatome is

T10

3

The transpyloric plane cuts the kidneys in half and is also where part of the pancreas is. It is at the level of

L1

4

Divides the 4 quadrants horizontally

Transumbilical plane (L4)

5

Provide better differentiation between soft tissues

MRI's

6

Appear as cross sections as viewed from the FOOT of a patient

-So observers left is the patients right

CT scans

7

In a CT, we want to find the vertebral body first. then just anterior to the vertebral body is the

Abdominal aorta

8

Then just to the right of the abdominal aorta is the

IVC

9

The abdominal aorta gives off the left renal artery at

L1-L2

10

The abdominal aorta gives off the left gonadal artery at

L2

11

In a CT of T12, we can clearly see the

Left colic flexure

12

Travels between the abdominal aorta and superior mesenteric artery

Left renal vein and uncinate process of duodenumm

13

Branches off posterior to the IVC

Right renal artery

14

Just inferior to where the SMV and splenic vein come together, we have the

Hepatic Portal Vein

15

We can see the pyloris of the stomach as we move into the 1st part of the duodenum in a CT at the level of

L1-L2

16

Each of the 3 prevertebral ganglion are associated with one of the big 3

Aorta branches (celiac trunk, SMA, IMA)

17

The only splanchnic nerves carrying parasympathetic fibers

Pelvic splanchnics

18

Ganglia in the wall of the organ we are innervating that are found in plexuses

Terminal ganglia

19

Provide EXTRINSIC innervation of the gut

Sympathetic and parasympathetic innervation

20

The enteric nervous system is intrinsic, meaning it is located in the walls of the

Bowel

21

The enteric nervous system is made up of which two major plexuses?

1.) Myenteric Plexus
2.) Submucosal Plexus

22

Extrinsic nerve fibers run on blood vessels leading to the

Bowel

23

When the outer longitudinal layer of bowel muscle relaxes in front of the bolus and the inner circular layer contracts behind the bolus we get

Peristalsis

24

Disease where there are regions of the bowel without myernteric or submucosal plexus's

-most common region is rectosigmoidal plexus

Aganglionic Megacolon (Hirschsprung's)

25

In Hirschsprung's, the constricted segment is the aganglionic segment because the extrinsic nerve fibers cause

Tonixc contraction

26

Allows relaxation of the colon

Intrinsic innervation

27

Have to go through the diaphragm to get into the abdomen for abdominal innervation

-Range from T5-T9

Greater thoracic splanchnics

28

The transition from midgut to hindgut happens immediately after the

Proximal 2/3 of transverse colon

29

Because of rotation of the forgut, where is the
1.) Left Vagus nerve
2.) Right vagus nerve

1.) Anterior
2.) Posterior

30

Pass through the celiac ganglion and are distributed on the celiac trunk to organs

Posterior Vagal nerve fibers

31

There is communication between the celiac, SM, and IM plexuses which allows the vagus nerve to provide parasympathetic innervation from

Esophagus to proximal 2/3 of transverse colon

32

You could cut or burn segments of the bowel without feeling it. But what would you feel?

Ischemia or pressure

33

Dull and poorly localized pain due to the fact that the bowel has less nerve endings than skin

Visceral pain

34

The dermatomal segment for the umbilicus is

T10

35

What is the lowest dermatomal segment of the gut for visceral pain?

L1

36

Shows up in T6-upper T8 dermatomes

-Forgut Pain

Epigastric pain

37

Shows up from T-8 to upper part of T11 dermatomes

-Midgut pain

Umbilical pain

38

Shows up in T11-T12 dermatomes

-Hindgut pain

Suprapubic pain

39

The gall bladder refers pain to the

-described as being in the right shoulderblade

T7 dermatome

40

When an injured organ comes in contact with the body wall we get

Parietal Pain

41

Has rebound tenderness, meaning it doesn't hurt when you press on the organ but it hurts when you release

Parietal pain

42

Uses VENTRAL rami for the entire pathway

Parietal pain

43

The right an left kidneys can be seen in a cross section at what level?

L2

-But really T12-L3

44

Infant kidneys can be described as being

Lobulated

45

What is the pathway of urine through the kidneys?

Nephrons in cortex --> Medullary pyramids --> Collecting tubules of renal pupilla --> Minor Calyces --> Major Calyces --> Renal Pelvic --> Ureter

46

Compression of left renal vein and 3rd part of duodenum by SMA

-Pain after eating

Superior mesenteric artery (nutcracker) syndrome

47

Kidney stones cause "loin to groin" pain where pain fibers travel in

Sympathetics

48

Located in the outer cortex and inner medulla of the kineys and made up of Nephrons (cortex) and collecting tubules (mostly medulla)

Uriniferous tubules

49

Ball of capillaries where urine formation begins

Glomerulus

50

Filtrate moves from glomerulus into PROXIMAL portion of

Nephron tubules

51

Filter blood to remove wastes as Urine

-Arrises from metanephrogenic blastema

Nephrons

52

An extension of the renal artery

Glomerulus

53

How does blood get to the Glomerulus?

Renal artery --> segmental artery --> interlobar artery --> arcuate artery --> interlobular artery --> afferent arterioles --> glomerulus

54

The urogenital ridge is made up
1.) Medially of?
2.) Laterally of?

1.) Gonadal ridge
2.) Nephrogenic ridge

55

Initial non-functional kidney system located in the cervical region that completely regresses in week 4

Pronephros

56

The 2nd kidney system that is located in the thorax-abdomen and briefly serves as a filtration system, but mostly regresses

Mesonephros

57

The mesonephros is made up of which three things?

1.) Mesonephric (Wolfian) Duct
2.) Ureteric bud
3.) Metanephros (metanephrogenic blastema)

58

Lateral to the mesonephros

-Mostly regresses in females
-Forms male internal genital system

Mesonephric (Wolfian)Duct

59

Serves as collecting system for temporary, regressing mesonephros

Mesonephric duct

60

Comes off caudal end of mesonephric duct

-forms collecting components of adult kidney

Ureteric Bud

61

Forms in the sacral region where it forms the nephrons of adult kidney

Metanephros

62

The interactions between the metanephros and ureteric bud can be described as being

Reciprocal induction

63

Made from the developing kidney

-aids in lung development

Amniotic fluid

64

Increased amniotic fluid which indicates an abnormality such as GI atresia or anencephaly

Polyhydramnios

65

As the kidney initially develops close to the bladder, it receives blood from the

Median sacral artery (branch off internal iliac)

66

Lined by transitional epithelium called urothelium

Urinary bladder

67

Keeps urine from leaking back into the ureters

Vesicouretal reflux

68

Located just inferior to the bladder in males

-surounds urethra in that area

Prostate

69

Located on the posterior side of the bladder

Seminal vesicles and bulbourethral glands

70

Splits into urogenital sinus and rectoanal canal

0divided by urorectal septum

Cloaca

71

Enters the posterior side of the urogenital sinus to form the bladder trigone

-Pulls ureters in so they empty into the trigone

Mesonephric ducts

72

Defect in anterior ventral midline during fusion of lateral body folds that results in bladder being located outside abdominal wall

Bladder Extrophy

73

Located in the testes and contain sertoli and germ cells

Seminiferous tubules

74

Lead to ducts called rete testis which then lead to efferent ductules

Seminiferous tubules

75

The seminiferous tubules are surrounded by connective tissue that contains

Leydig cells

76

Induced by primordial germ cells from the yolk sac during weeks 4-6

Gonad formation

77

Travel through the allentois and will later give rise to sperm and eggs

Primordial germ cells

78

Formed from gonadal ridge mesoderm after induction by primordial germ cells

Primitive sex cords

79

In males, the primitive sex cords will proliferate and form the medullary cords of the

Testes

80

These medullary cords will then give rise to the

Seminiferous tubules and rete testes

81

The primitive sex cords will proliferate in cortical surface of ovary in females and the cortical cells will become

Follicles

82

Secrete the Mullerian Inhibiting Factor (MIH), which prevents the paramesonephric duct from forming

Sertoli Cells

83

Forms from the prostatic urethra

Prostate

84

Forms the uterine tubes, body of uterus, cervix, and upper portion of the vagina

Paramesonephric ducts

85

The lower portion of the vagina is derived from the

Urogenital sinus

86

Form along the cloacal membrane where endoderm and ectoderm meet without intervening mesoderm

External Genitals

87

The cloacal membrane eventually forms the

Genital tubercle, Cloacal fold, and Genital swellings (i.e. labiosacral fold)

88

The cloacal membrane is then divided by the urorectal septum into

Anterior urethral fold and posterior anal fold

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