Abdomen Lecture Notes Pt. 4 Flashcards Preview

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1

Runs in the transverse cervical ligament and passes OVER the ureter

Uterine artery

2

The uterine artery spirals around the side of the uterus so that it can supply the uterus when the uterus is

Stretched during pregnancy

3

Ectopic implantation typically occurs in the

Ampulla

4

Passes under the ureters

Vaginal artery

5

Crosses over the ureter at the pelvic brim

Ovarian artery

6

The suspensitory ligament is also known as the

Infundibulopelvic (IP) ligament

7

Appendicular pain may be seen close to

Ovarian pain

8

Results when the pericervical ring is weakened

Uterine prolapse

9

Surgical removal of uterus

Hysterectomy

10

What are the three types of hysterectomy?

1.) Partial (only uterus)
2.) Total (uterus and cervix)
3.) Radical (uterus, cervix, and vagina)

11

Typically a radical hysterectomy is only seen in

Cancer

12

The rectosigmoid junction is located at

S3

13

Has smoother mucosa than the rest of the colon, with no tenia coli, haustra, or omental appendices

Rectum

14

The upper 1/3 of the rectum is covered by

-NO mesentary

Peritoneum

15

What are the three arteries supplying the rectum?

1.) Superior rectal (Portal)
2.) Middle rectal (Caval)
3.) Inferior rectal (Caval)

16

Rectal innervation is from the

-another name for inferior hypogastric

Rectal plexus

17

Creates an angle where the rectum projects anteriorly and the anal canal projects posteriorly

-prevents fecal incontinence

Puborectal sling

18

The Vas (ductus) deferens and seminal vesicles are derived from the

Mesonephric ducts

19

The internal urethral sphincter is located in the

Prostatic urethra

20

Provide most of the semen and contian fructose

Seminal vesicles

21

Receives blood from erectile tissue

Prostatic venous plexus

22

The prostate receives PARASYMPATHETIC innervation from

Pelvic splanchnics (secremotor function)

23

The prostate receives SYMPATHETIC innervation that functions to

Contract smooth muscles during ejaculation

24

Located around the prostatic urethra and makes up 5% of the prostate volume

-Site of BPH
-10% of prostatic cancers here

Transitional zone

25

Located around the ejaculatory ducts and urethra and makes up 25% of prostatic volume

-where 5% of prostatic cancers occur

Central zone

26

Makes up 70% of prostatic volume and is where 80% of prostatic cancers occue

Peripheral zone

27

Caused by an increase in the number of cells in the transitional zone

Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH)

28

BPH compresses the urethra and presents with

Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms (LUTS)

29

Irritation of the prostatic urethra seen in BPH makes you feel like you constantly have to

Urinate

30

Prostate cancer is an

Adenocarcinoma

31

Protate cancer shows symptoms similar to BPH and can be detected with which two tests?

1.) DRE (firm prostate = positive test)
2.) Prostate specific androgen (looking for large increase above 4ng/mL)

32

Prostate cancer metastasizes to

Bone, Liver, and Lungs

33

What are the three entry points for a prostatectomy?

1.) Retropubic
2.) Transurethral
3.) Suprapubic

34

When removing the prostate, you must be careful not to damage the nerves responsible for

Erections

35

The puborectalis changes the direction of the

Rectum

36

Unlike the rest of the colon, which has teniae coli, the rectum has

External Longitudinal Muscle

37

Folds of rectal mucosa formed by underlyin blood vessels

-where we see internal hemorrhoids

Anal columns

38

The base of the anal columns is the

Pectinate/dentate line

39

If we cut ourselves above the pectinate line, would we feel it?

No, only ischemia and distension

40

Gap between the UG diaphragm and pelvic diaphragm that is used for surgical repair of pelvic organ prolapse

Anterior Recess

41

Subflooring of pelvic viscera

-Where UG structures pass through pelvic floor

Urogenital diaphragm

42

The levator ani is incomplete anteriorly which gives us the

-right behind pubic symphysis

Urogenital hiatus

43

Fills in the urogenital hiatus by stretching from one ischiopubic ramus to another

Urogenital diaphragm

44

The urogenital diaphragm contains the

Deep Perineal Pouch

45

Base of support for the external genitalia

Urogenital Diaphragm

46

In males, the membranous urethra is in the

Deep perineal pouch

47

In males the spongy urethra is in the

Superficial perineal pouch

48

In females, there are no glands in the

Deep perineal pouch

49

Attached to the UG diaphragm in the superficial perineal pouch

Erectile bodies

50

Erectile tissue that attaches to the UG membrane and ischiopubic ramus

-Merge together to form corpus cavernosa

Right and Left Crura of the Penis

51

Portion of erectile tissue that receives the urethra

Bulb of penis

52

Inside the bulb of the penis is the

Corpus spongeosum

53

Sandwiched between ddep peile fascia and tunica albuginea of corpus cavernosum

Deep dorsal vein of the penis

54

Only attaches attached portions of erectile bodies

Skeletal muscle

55

Functions during ejaculation to squeeze on the bulb of the penis and make sure all sperm passes through the urethra

Bulbospongeous

56

Also empties the urethra after urination

Bulbospongeous

57

Can happen as the result of a straddle injury

Urethral tear

58

If we tear the spongy urethra from the membranous urethra, urine and blood will fill up the space between the

Deep penile fascia and superficial perineal fascia

59

If we tear the membranous urethra from the prostatic urethra, all of the bleeding will be

ABOVE the pelvic floor in the subperitoneal space

60

The body of the clitoris is the

Corpus cavernosa

61

Commonly infected and can result in a cyst called a Bartolon's cyst

-covered in skin so cyst is painful

Greater Vestibular (Bartolon's) Gland

62

Attachment for bulbospongious, superficial and deep perineal, external anal sphincter, and pelvic diaphragm muscles

Perineal body (Central Tendon)

63

The perineal body (central tendon) is pyramidal in shape, where the apex projects up and attaches to the

Rectovaginal fascia

64

If you ask a patient to bear down, it should be firm. But if it is soft than there is a tear. This describes the

Perineal body

65

The blood supply for the perineum is primarily via the

Internal pudendal artery

66

Once in the superficial pouch, the internal pudendal artery sends branches to the

Erectile tissues

67

Gives off dorsal artery of the penis/clitoris

Internal pudendal artery

68

Somatic innervation of the perineum is via the

Pudendal nerve

69

Foreign bodies that are aspirated are more likely to end up in the

Right bronchus

70

Ridge at the tracheal bifurcation

Carina

71

Congenital deformation where the esophagus ends blindly and the stomach is attached to the trachea so it's filled with air

-Results in polyhydramnios

Tracheoesophageal fistula

72

The horizontal fissure is located at the

4th Rib

73

The oblique fissure is located at the

6th rib

74

Between the ribs and diaphragm and is 2 intercostal spaces deep during quiet breathing

Costodiaphragmatic recess

75

Procedure performed at the midaxillary line to remove fluid from the pleural cavity

Thoracentesis

76

The head of the 7th rib articulates with the vertebral body of the

6th and 7th vertebrae

77

The tubercle of the 7th rib articulates with the

Transverse process of the 7th Vertebra

78

The negative intrapleural pressure is between the

Visceral and parietal pleura

79

Increases both superior-inferior and lateral dimensions of the thoracic cavity

Diaphragm

80

If we lose the right phrenic nerve, when the left side of the diaphragm moves down, what happens to the right side?

Moves up (paradoxical movement of the diaphragm)

81

Affects venous return to the heart via the great veins

Changes in intrathoracic pressure during ventilation

82

Increases intrathoracic pressure which decreases blood drainage from the head

Forced exhalations

83

The input for the cough reflex comes from the

Vagus nerve

84

Atmospheric pressure on the injured side will compress or increase pressure on the mediastinum, which will compress the healthy lung during inspiration. This describes an

Open pneumothorax

85

More dangerous because it results in positive intrapleural pressure

-Trachea deviates and patient can't breathe

Tension pneumothorax

86

Blood in the pleural cavity (hemothorax) does not clot because of the

Smooth surfaces of pleural walls

87

Pairs with the right border of the sternum

-surrounds the heart

Coronary sulcus

88

Where the heart is on an xray

Mediastinal shadow

89

The heart is tilted towards the chest wall such that the part closes to the chest wall is the

Inferior part

90

Prevent a hole in the center of the semilunar valves where the three cusps meet

Semilunar nodules

91

Where would we hear a tricuspid regurgitation?

Right 5th intercostal space at sternal border

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