Introduction to Medical Ultrasound Flashcards Preview

Structure and Function Test 1 > Introduction to Medical Ultrasound > Flashcards

Flashcards in Introduction to Medical Ultrasound Deck (63):
1

Uses safe sound waves and no radiation to allow visualization of the inside of the body

Ultrasound

2

Emitting sounds and listening to the returning echos to locate objects or navigate

Echolcation

3

A computer programmed to transform sound echos into images

Ultrasound machine

4

Ultrasound machine has piezoelectric crystal that vibrates to create sound waves and works in the

1-20 MHz range

5

Consists of a head with footprint, connector to make sound waves, and a wire

Ultrasound transducer

6

Must be in contact with the body mucus membrane

Transducer probe

7

Assists sound waves to travel through the body cleanly

Gel

8

Different transducers emit sound at different frequencies allowing varying degrees of

Sound penetration

9

Increases resolution at the expense of penetration

Increasing frequency

10

Have a higher frequency (10-18 MHz) and are used for musculoskeletal, soft tissue, and superficial analysis

Linear transducer

11

A linear transducer works well up to about

6 cm penetration

12

Lower frequency transducers used on the abdomen and for deeper structures

Curvilinear or convex transducer

13

Has better penetration than a linear transducer, but worse resolution

Curvilinear transducer

14

What has a wider field of view, linear or curvilinear transducers?

Curvilinear

15

Has a wide beam and a lower frequency. Helps to guide beams through windows such as the ribs

Sector (phased array) transducer

16

Sector transducers are used for

Cardiac stuff

17

Give a rectangular image

Linear transducers

18

What are the characteristics of B mode ultrasound?

2d spectra of shades of grey

Bright echos = more reflective tissues

No echos = not reflective (i.e. fluids)

19

Can be used to detect real time motion

B mode Ultrasound

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Weak or low echo

Hypoechoic

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Bright echo

Hyperechoic

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No echo or blackness

Anechoic

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Equal echogenicity between 2 structures

Isoechoic

24

Ultrasound mode where red color indicates TOWARDS transducer and blue indicates AWAY from transducer

Doppler ultrasound

25

Doppler ultrasound is helpful in evaluating

Cardiovascular structures

26

5x more sensitive than doppler and is used to evaluate tumors or tendons

Power doppler

27

Used for low flow, and is one directional

Power doppler

28

What four things can happen to sound waves emitted from transducer?

1.) reflection back to transducer
2.) refraction
3.) scatter
4.) Attenuation

29

Travel further and are LESS attenuated

Lower frequency waves

30

Used for deeper structures. Less resolution

Lower frequency waves

31

Used for superficial structures. Better resolution

Higher frequency waves

32

Artifacts occur because of normal physics of sound waves. One example of an artifact in ultrasound is

Anisotrophy

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Change in echogenicity of a structure dependent on angle of beam relative to that structure

Anisotrophy

34

A 3-7 degree change in the probe position may drastically change the

Echo

35

The order of anisotrophic structures is

Tendon > ligament > nerve

36

Current resolution for ultrasound is 200-450 um. It can detect foreign bodies as small as

0.5 mm

37

Ultrasound can even be used to detect

Non-radiopaque structures

38

On an ultrasound machine, the gain button controls

Brightness

39

Each musculoskeletal component (i.e. muscle, tendon, bone, cartilage, etc) has its own unique

Echosignature

40

In the sagital plane of muscle ultrasound, hypoechoic bundles are

Fibers/fasicles

41

In the sagital plane of muscle ultrasound, hyperechoic septae are

Fibroadipose and perimysium

42

Gives a multipennate pattern, like leaves on a leaf

Sagital muscle ultrasound

43

Gives an ultrasound that looks somewhat like starry night

Transverse muscle ultrasound

44

Non-compressible, non-vascular structures that connect muscle to bone

Tendons

45

Tightly packed and hyperechoic. Best viewed using sagital ultrasound

Tendon

46

In a transverse ultrasound of a tendon, what type of pattern do we see?

Bristle pattern, like the end of a broom

47

Compact packed fibrillar structure that often covers a capsule/joint to connect bone to bone

Ligament

48

Ligaments are usually imaged in what plane?

Sagital

49

Are ligaments vascular?

No

50

Ligaments can be hyper- or hypoechoic depending on

Surrounding structures

51

Gives a hyperechoic pattern with posterior shadows

Bone

52

Hypo-anechoic structures typically located at synovial joints

-pressure sensitive

Bursae and Synovia

53

What type of echo does hyaline cartilage give off?

Hypoechoic with uniform thickness

54

Lines bones and is non compressible with uniform thickness

Hyaline cartilage

55

What type of echo does fibrocartilage give?

Hyper/hypo echoic. Like salt and pepper

56

In the sagital plane, which part of nerves show up as
1.) hypoechoic
2.) hyperechoic

1.) Fasicles
2.) Epineurium

57

In the short/transverse plane, nerves give what type of ultrasound?

A follicular pattern like a honeycomb

58

Are round and anechoic in the transverse plane

Vessels

59

In the longitudinal section, vessels appear as

Anechoic tubes

60

What method of ultrasound is great for vessels?

Doppler

61

Allows us to see the body in motion so we can correlate movements with pain and pathology of a structure

Dynamic Imaging

62

A valuable tool for many procedures such as a central line or joint aspirations because it allows for great accuracy while decreasing much of the risk

Needle Visualization

63

Describes how the beam loses energy as tissues absorb sound

Attenuation

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