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Flashcards in Power Point Notes Deck (91):
1

What are the 12 cranial nerves?

I. Olfactory
II. Optic
III. Oculomotor
IV. Trochlear
V. Trigeminal
VI. Abducans
VII. Facial
VIII. Vestibulocochlear
IX. Glossopharyngeal
X. Vagus
XI. Accessory
XII. Hypoglossal

2

The trigeminal nerve (V) is branched into what three divisions?

V1 Opthalmic
V2 Maxillary
V3 Mandibular

3

What 3 cranial nerves are sensory only?

Olfactory (O), Optic (II), and Vestibulocochlear (VIII)

4

Which cranial nerves are motor only?

Occulomotor (III), Trochlear (IV), Abducans (VI), Accessory (XI), and Hypoglossal (XII)

5

Which cranial nerves are a mix of sensory and motor fibers?

Tigeminal (V), Facial (VII), Glossopharyngeal (IX), and Vagus (X)

6

The tip of the hyoid bone is located at which cervical level?

C3

7

Faciliatates movement of respiratory and alimentary tracts and limits and directs spread of infection pus

Deep cervical fascia

8

Envagination of the prevertebral fascia

Axillary Sheath

9

Located between the buccopharyngeal and prevertebral fascia

Retropharyngeal space

10

Connects infratemporal fossa and pterygopalatine fossa

Pterygomaxillary fissure

11

The olfactory nerve (I) Travels in the

Cribiform plate

12

The optic nerve (II) Travels in the

Optic canal

13

Travel through the superior orbital fissure

Cranial nerves III, IV, V1, and VI

14

Travels through the foramen Rotundum

Maxillary Division of Trigeminal Nerve (V2)

15

Travels through the foramen ovale

Mandibular division of trigeminal nerve (V3)

16

Travels through the internal auditory meatus

Facial (VII) and Vestibulocochlear (VIII) nerves

17

Travel through the jugular foramen

Glosopharyngeal (IX), Vagus (X), and Spinal accessory (XI) Nerves

18

Travels through the Hypoglossal Canal

Hypoglossal Nerve (XII)

19

The middle cranial fossa communicates with the

Orbit, Pterygopalatine fossa, and infratemporal fossa

20

What are two connections between the middle cranial fossa and the orbit?

Optic canal and superior orbital fissure

21

Comes in below the tongue and innervates intrinsic tongue muscles

Hypoglossal nerve

22

Has motor innervation to muscles of mastication and is the primary sensory nerve of the face

CN V

23

What are the only three cranial nerves that pass through more than one bony opening?

CNs V, VII, and IX

24

9 of the 12 cranial nerves go through a

Single opening

25

What are the ONLY cranial nerves that carry preganglionic fibers?

CNs III, VII, IX, and X

26

The platysma is innervated by the

Facial laryngeal nerve (VII)

27

Used when we sniff because they pull up on the ribs

Scalene muscles

28

Space between the anterior and middle scalene that the proximal portion of the brachial plexus and subclavian artery pass through

Scalene interval

29

Facilitates movement between the pretracheal and prevertebral fascia

Retropharyngeal space

30

Right common caroitd branches off of

Brachiocephalic trunk

31

The left common carotid arises

On its own

32

Which nerve responds to the information that the glossopharyngeal nerve sends to the CNS from the carotid body and sius?

CN X

33

What is the gold standard for treating atherosclerosis?

Carotid endarterectomy

34

What is a possible symptom of a patient with carotid stenosis?

Fainting spells

35

Venous return from branches of the external carotid mostly go to the

Internal jugular vein

36

Courses lateral to the carotids and just superior to the hyoid bone

Hyoglossal nerve

37

For ALL sympathetic distribution to the head. The preganglionic fibers ascend the sympathetic chain, synapse in superior cervical ganglion, and then exit via a

Perivascular nerve

38

Located posteromedial to the vagus nerve

Sympathetic trunk

39

Absolutely essential glands that monitor calcium levels in the blood to make sure muscles work

Parathyroid glands

40

In an emergency, to open the airway, we want to puncture the

-thyroid is not here so less blood

Cricothyroid membrane

41

However, a cricothyrotomy can damage the

Voal cords

42

When doing a thyroidectomy, you want to be careful not to hit the

-Innervates voice box

Recurrent Laryngeal nerve

43

The superior petrosal sinus leads to the junction of the

Transverse sinus and sigmoid sinus

44

Made up of the thalamus and hypothalamus

-The location of the third ventricle of the brain

Diencephalon

45

Kids with spina bifida w/ meningeal myocele always have this

-Causes hydrocephalus
-Cerebellum and medulla are below the foramen magnum

Arnold-chiari malformation

46

Connects Carotid arteries to vertebral arteries

Posterior communicating arteries

47

Common sight of ischemic stroke

Posterior inferior cerebellar artery

48

One of the most common places for a cerebral aneurysm (40%) is at the connection of the

Anterior cerebral artery and anterior communicating artery

49

The second most common sight of cerebral aneurysm (34%) is at the lateral bifurcation of the

Middle cerebral artery

50

The third most common sight of a cerebral aneurysm (20%) is where the internal carotid bifurcates into the

Anterior and middle cerebral arteries and the posterior communicating artery

51

What are the major blood vessels of the infratemporal fossa?

Maxillary artery and pterygoid venousplexus

52

What are the components of the upper aerodigestive tract?

Nasal cavity, oral cavity, pharynx, and larynx

53

What are the functions of the upper aerodigestive tract?

Deglutition, phonation, respiration, and articulation

54

Separates the oral cavity from the oropharynx

Palatoglossal arch

55

The tongue is broken into the

Apex, body, and root

56

The anterior 2/3 is separated from the posterior 1/3 of the tongue by the

Sulcus terminalis (where the vallate papillae are)

57

What are the four extrinsic tongue muscles?

Palatoglossus, styloglossus, genioglossus, and hyoglossus

58

All extrinsic tongue muscles except the palatoglossus are innervated by

CN XII

59

The palatoglossus is innervated by

CN X

60

Important in depressing and flattening the tongue on the floor of the mouth

Hypoglossus

61

Helps to elevate and retract the tongue

Styloglossus

62

Allows us to stick our tongue out from the oral cavity (protract)

Genioglossus

63

The mucous membrane of the pharynx is innervated by

CN IX

64

Communicates with the nasal cavity via Choanae

Nasopharynx

65

Communicates w/ middle ear via Eustacian tube

Nasopharynx

66

The nasopharynx is bound posterolaterally by the

Superior constrictor muscle

67

The nasopharynx contains the

Pharyngeal tonsils (adenoids) and Auditory tube

68

What are the three muscles that move the soft palate?

1.) Tensor palati (CN V3)
2.) Uvula (CN X)
3.) Levator Palati (CN X)

69

The oropharynx communicates with the oral cavity via the

Faucial isthmus (throat)

70

The oropharynx is bound posterolaterally by the

Middle constrictor

71

What are the contents of the Oropharynx?

Palatine tonsils, palatoglossal arch, palatopharyngeal arch, tonsillar artery, glossopharyngeal nerve

72

The laryngopharynx is bound posterolaterally by the

Inferior constrictor muscle

73

In an infant, the uvula and epiglottis approximate and lock, allowing

Simultaneous sucking of milk and breathing

74

Contact between the epiglottis and the soft palate at birth provides a channel from the nose through the nasal cavities, nasal pharynx, larynx, and trachea to the

Lungs

75

In a baby, food sasses on either side of the inter locked larynx into the

Piriform recesses and esophagus

76

Abducts the vocal folds

Posterior Cricoarytendoid muscles

77

Adduct the vocal folds

Lateral Cricoarytenoid muscles

78

Lengthen and tense the vocal folds

Cricothyroid muscles

79

Relaxes the vocal folds

Vocalis muscles

80

What are the three aspects of speech?

1.) Phonation
2.) Resonance
3.) Articulation

81

Generation of sound via vocal fold vibration

Phonation

82

Vocal pitch is controlled by changes in

Vocal fold length and tension

83

Induction of vibration in chest, pharynx, and head

Resonance

84

Controlled by altering shape and volume of pharynx, raising or lowering pharynx, and varying the amount of sound transmission through the nasopharynx and nose

Resonance

85

Controlled by lips, tongue, palate, and pharynx

Articulation

86

What is the function of the pterygopalatine ganglion?

To stimulate mucous and lacrimal glands

87

The Preganglionic fibers from the pterygopalatine ganglion are located in the

Greater petrosal nerve (VII)

88

In Tongue development, what do we get from the 1st pharyngeal arch?

2 lateral and 1 median lingual swellings

89

In tongue development, what do we get from the 2nd pharyngeal arch?

Copula

90

In the tongue development, what comes from the 3rd and 4th pharyngeal arches?

Hypopharyngeal eminence

91

The palate is the roof of the oral cavity and the floor of the nasal cavity. It is separated into primary and secondary palate which are divided by the

Incisive foramen

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