Flashcards in Power Point Notes Deck (91):
What are the 12 cranial nerves?
The trigeminal nerve (V) is branched into what three divisions?
What 3 cranial nerves are sensory only?
Olfactory (O), Optic (II), and Vestibulocochlear (VIII)
Which cranial nerves are motor only?
Occulomotor (III), Trochlear (IV), Abducans (VI), Accessory (XI), and Hypoglossal (XII)
Which cranial nerves are a mix of sensory and motor fibers?
Tigeminal (V), Facial (VII), Glossopharyngeal (IX), and Vagus (X)
The tip of the hyoid bone is located at which cervical level?
Faciliatates movement of respiratory and alimentary tracts and limits and directs spread of infection pus
Deep cervical fascia
Envagination of the prevertebral fascia
Located between the buccopharyngeal and prevertebral fascia
Connects infratemporal fossa and pterygopalatine fossa
The olfactory nerve (I) Travels in the
The optic nerve (II) Travels in the
Travel through the superior orbital fissure
Cranial nerves III, IV, V1, and VI
Travels through the foramen Rotundum
Maxillary Division of Trigeminal Nerve (V2)
Travels through the foramen ovale
Mandibular division of trigeminal nerve (V3)
Travels through the internal auditory meatus
Facial (VII) and Vestibulocochlear (VIII) nerves
Travel through the jugular foramen
Glosopharyngeal (IX), Vagus (X), and Spinal accessory (XI) Nerves
Travels through the Hypoglossal Canal
Hypoglossal Nerve (XII)
The middle cranial fossa communicates with the
Orbit, Pterygopalatine fossa, and infratemporal fossa
What are two connections between the middle cranial fossa and the orbit?
Optic canal and superior orbital fissure
Comes in below the tongue and innervates intrinsic tongue muscles
Has motor innervation to muscles of mastication and is the primary sensory nerve of the face
What are the only three cranial nerves that pass through more than one bony opening?
CNs V, VII, and IX
9 of the 12 cranial nerves go through a
What are the ONLY cranial nerves that carry preganglionic fibers?
CNs III, VII, IX, and X
The platysma is innervated by the
Facial laryngeal nerve (VII)
Used when we sniff because they pull up on the ribs
Space between the anterior and middle scalene that the proximal portion of the brachial plexus and subclavian artery pass through
Facilitates movement between the pretracheal and prevertebral fascia
Right common caroitd branches off of
The left common carotid arises
On its own
Which nerve responds to the information that the glossopharyngeal nerve sends to the CNS from the carotid body and sius?
What is the gold standard for treating atherosclerosis?
What is a possible symptom of a patient with carotid stenosis?
Venous return from branches of the external carotid mostly go to the
Internal jugular vein
Courses lateral to the carotids and just superior to the hyoid bone
For ALL sympathetic distribution to the head. The preganglionic fibers ascend the sympathetic chain, synapse in superior cervical ganglion, and then exit via a
Located posteromedial to the vagus nerve
Absolutely essential glands that monitor calcium levels in the blood to make sure muscles work
In an emergency, to open the airway, we want to puncture the
-thyroid is not here so less blood
However, a cricothyrotomy can damage the
When doing a thyroidectomy, you want to be careful not to hit the
-Innervates voice box
Recurrent Laryngeal nerve
The superior petrosal sinus leads to the junction of the
Transverse sinus and sigmoid sinus
Made up of the thalamus and hypothalamus
-The location of the third ventricle of the brain
Kids with spina bifida w/ meningeal myocele always have this
-Cerebellum and medulla are below the foramen magnum
Connects Carotid arteries to vertebral arteries
Posterior communicating arteries
Common sight of ischemic stroke
Posterior inferior cerebellar artery
One of the most common places for a cerebral aneurysm (40%) is at the connection of the
Anterior cerebral artery and anterior communicating artery
The second most common sight of cerebral aneurysm (34%) is at the lateral bifurcation of the
Middle cerebral artery
The third most common sight of a cerebral aneurysm (20%) is where the internal carotid bifurcates into the
Anterior and middle cerebral arteries and the posterior communicating artery
What are the major blood vessels of the infratemporal fossa?
Maxillary artery and pterygoid venousplexus
What are the components of the upper aerodigestive tract?
Nasal cavity, oral cavity, pharynx, and larynx
What are the functions of the upper aerodigestive tract?
Deglutition, phonation, respiration, and articulation
Separates the oral cavity from the oropharynx
The tongue is broken into the
Apex, body, and root
The anterior 2/3 is separated from the posterior 1/3 of the tongue by the
Sulcus terminalis (where the vallate papillae are)
What are the four extrinsic tongue muscles?
Palatoglossus, styloglossus, genioglossus, and hyoglossus
All extrinsic tongue muscles except the palatoglossus are innervated by
The palatoglossus is innervated by
Important in depressing and flattening the tongue on the floor of the mouth
Helps to elevate and retract the tongue
Allows us to stick our tongue out from the oral cavity (protract)
The mucous membrane of the pharynx is innervated by
Communicates with the nasal cavity via Choanae
Communicates w/ middle ear via Eustacian tube
The nasopharynx is bound posterolaterally by the
Superior constrictor muscle
The nasopharynx contains the
Pharyngeal tonsils (adenoids) and Auditory tube
What are the three muscles that move the soft palate?
1.) Tensor palati (CN V3)
2.) Uvula (CN X)
3.) Levator Palati (CN X)
The oropharynx communicates with the oral cavity via the
Faucial isthmus (throat)
The oropharynx is bound posterolaterally by the
What are the contents of the Oropharynx?
Palatine tonsils, palatoglossal arch, palatopharyngeal arch, tonsillar artery, glossopharyngeal nerve
The laryngopharynx is bound posterolaterally by the
Inferior constrictor muscle
In an infant, the uvula and epiglottis approximate and lock, allowing
Simultaneous sucking of milk and breathing
Contact between the epiglottis and the soft palate at birth provides a channel from the nose through the nasal cavities, nasal pharynx, larynx, and trachea to the
In a baby, food sasses on either side of the inter locked larynx into the
Piriform recesses and esophagus
Abducts the vocal folds
Posterior Cricoarytendoid muscles
Adduct the vocal folds
Lateral Cricoarytenoid muscles
Lengthen and tense the vocal folds
Relaxes the vocal folds
What are the three aspects of speech?
Generation of sound via vocal fold vibration
Vocal pitch is controlled by changes in
Vocal fold length and tension
Induction of vibration in chest, pharynx, and head
Controlled by altering shape and volume of pharynx, raising or lowering pharynx, and varying the amount of sound transmission through the nasopharynx and nose
Controlled by lips, tongue, palate, and pharynx
What is the function of the pterygopalatine ganglion?
To stimulate mucous and lacrimal glands
The Preganglionic fibers from the pterygopalatine ganglion are located in the
Greater petrosal nerve (VII)
In Tongue development, what do we get from the 1st pharyngeal arch?
2 lateral and 1 median lingual swellings
In tongue development, what do we get from the 2nd pharyngeal arch?
In the tongue development, what comes from the 3rd and 4th pharyngeal arches?