Compartments of the Thigh and Knee Joint Flashcards Preview

Structure and Function Test 1 > Compartments of the Thigh and Knee Joint > Flashcards

Flashcards in Compartments of the Thigh and Knee Joint Deck (78):
1

What are the three compartments of the thigh?

Anterior, medial, and posterior

2

The deep fascia of the thigh is called the

Fascia Lata

3

Acts to facilitate venous return

Fascia Lata

4

The fascia lata is thickened laterally forming the

Iliotibial tract

5

Provides support for the knee joint and is a site of attachment for the gluteus maximus and tensor fascia lata muscles

Iliotibial tract/band

6

The deep fascia extends from the iliotibial tract to the femur creating the

Lateral intermuscular septum

7

Extends from the deep fascia on the medial aspect of the thigh to the femur

Medial intermuscular septum

8

The anterior thigh is the hip flexor/knee extensor compartment and is innervated by the

Femoral nerve

9

What are the 8 anterior thigh muscles?

1.) Psoas major
2.) Illiacus
3.) Tensor Fascia Lata
4.) Sartorius
5.) Rectus femoris
6.) Vastus intermedius
7.) Vastus lateralis
8.) Vastus medialis

10

Which of the anterior thigh muscles function in HIP FLEXION

Iliopsoas, sartorius, tensor fascia lata, and rectus femoris

11

Which anterior thigh muscles function in knee extension

Quadriceps femoris

12

The medial thigh compartment houses the hip adductors and is innervated by the

Obturator nerve

13

What are the 6 muscles of the medial compartment of the thigh?

Pectineus, adductor longus, adductor brevis, adductor magnus, gracilis, and obturator externus

14

Which medial thigh muscles function in hip adduction

Pectineaus, adductor longus, adductor brevis, adductor magnus, and Gracilis

15

Which medial thigh muscles function in hip lateral rotation?

Obturator externus

16

Which medial thigh muscles function in hip extension?

Hamstring part of the adductor magnus

17

Which medial thigh muscles function in knee flexion

Gracilis

18

The posterior compartment is the hip extensor, knee flexor compartment and is innervated by the

Tibial nerve

19

What are the 5 muscles of the posterior compartment of the thigh?

Semitendinosis, semimembranosis, Biceps femoris (long and short heads), and the hamstring part of the adductor magnus

20

Which posterior thigh muscles function in hip extension?

Semitendinosus, semimembranosus, aductor magnus, and long head of biceps femoris

21

Which posterior thigh muscles function in knee flexion?

Semitendinosus, semimembranosus, and the long and short heads of biceps femoris

22

An invagination of transversalis fascia that is extended into the thigh by the femoral artery, vein, and lymphatics

Femoral sheath

23

Not contained within the femoral sheath

Femoral nerve

24

Can occur as loops of bowel that enter the medial most compartment of the femoral sheath, i.e. the femoral canal

Femoral hernias

25

Femoral hernias are distinguished from inguinal hernias in that they pass posterior to the

Inguinal ligament

26

A hinge type synovial joint between the femoral condyles and tibial condyles, and the patella and femur

Knee joint

27

The shape of the articulating surfaces, round femoral condyles, and flat tibial condyles, make the knee joint inherently

Unstable

28

Two wedges of fibrocartilage that provide a shallow socket for the femoral condyles and divide the joint cavity into two compartments

Menisci

29

The menisci divide the joint cavity into which two compartments?

Suprameniscal and inframeniscal

30

Between the femoral condyles and the menisci

Suprameniscal compartment

31

Between the menisci and tibial condyles

Inframeniscal compartment

32

What are the five types of EXTRACAPSULAR support for the knee joint?

Patellar, lateral collateral, medial collateral, arcuate popliteal, and oblique popliteal ligaments

33

Attaches the patella to the tibial tuberosity

Patellar ligament

34

The patellar tendon functions to

Provide anterior support to joint capsule

35

Stretched during knee flexion

Patellar ligament

36

Attaches the lateral femoral epicondyle to the apex of fibula

Lateral collateral ligament (LCL)

37

The LCL acts to

Provide lateral support to knee

38

Taught during extension

LCL and MCL

39

Connects the medial femoral epicondyle to the tibia and medial meniscus

Medial Collateral Ligament (MCL)

40

The MCL acts to

Provide medial support to the knee

41

Connects the semimembranosus tendon to the lateral joint capsule

Oblique popliteal ligament

42

The oblique popliteal ligament acts to

Resist hyperextension of knee

43

What are the 4 structures functioning in INTRACAPSULAR support?

1.) Medial meniscus
2.) Lateral meniscus
3.) Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL)
4.) Posterior cruciate ligament (PCL)

44

The medial meniscus attaches to the

Intercondylar area of the tibia, tibial plateau, and MCL

45

Receives the medial femoral condyle

Medial meniscus

46

Translates on the tibia and rotates with the femur during knee movements

Medial and Lateral menisci

47

The lateral meniscus attaches to the

Intercondylar area of the tibia, tibial plateau, and lateral femoral condyle via the meniscofemoral ligament

48

Receives the lateral femoral condyle

Lateral meniscus

49

Connects the anterior intercondylar eminence of tibia to medial surface of lateral femoral condyle (up and out)

ACL

50

During extension, the ACL is

Taut

51

The ACL acts to

Resist anterior displacement of the tibia on the fixed femur

52

Attaches the posterior intercondylar eminence of tibia to the lateral surface of medial femoral condyle (up and in)

PCL

53

Taut during knee flexion

PCL

54

The PCL acts to

Resist posterior displacement of the tibia on the fixed femur

55

Movements of the knee with the femur fixed (i.e. sitting in a chair), are described as

Movement of tibia on femur

56

Movements of the knee with tibia fixed (i.e. standing) are described as

Movement of femur on tibia

57

The fixed bone is the one that is

Acted on

58

With the tibia fixed, upon contraction of the quadriceps, extension begins with

Anterior rolling of femur on tibia in suprameniscal compartment

59

The anterior rolling is checked by the

PCL

60

Occurs concomitantly with the anterior rolling and prevents the femur from rolling off the tibial surface

Posterior translation (sliding) of femur on the tibia in inframeniscal compartment

61

This posterior translational movement is checked by the

ACL

62

Near full extension the lateral femoral condyle reaches the limit of its articular surface (full congruency) and stops rolling while the longer articular surface of the medial femoral condyle continues to roll in the

Suprameniscal compartment

63

This results in a

-locks the knee in full extension

Medial rotation of the femur

64

Unlocking of the knee requires muscle action. To unlock the knee, the femur is rotated laterally by

Popliteus muscle contraction

65

Which muscles function in flexion at the knee?

Hamstrings (ST, SM, BF), Gracilis, sartorius, and popliteus

66

Which muscles function in extension of the knee?

Quadriceps femoris (RF, VI, VL, and VM)

67

Which muscles function in medial rotation of the tibia on the femur (lateral rotation of femur on tibia)?

Popliteus, semitendinosus, semimembranosus, sartorius, and gracilis

68

Which muscles function in lateral rotation of tibia on femur (medial rotation of femur on tibia)?

Biceps femoris

69

Arterial blood supply is provided to the knee primarily from

Genicular branches of the popliteal artery

70

Sensory innervation of the knee is via branches of the

Femoral, obturator, tibial, and common fibular nerves

71

Can occur as a result of bursitis or internal damage leading to knee effusions

Knee swelling

72

Caused by a lateral blow to the knee

Valgus stress

73

Valgus stress can result in simultaneous damage to the

ACL, medial menisucs, and MCL (called the unhappy triad)

74

Caused by a medial blow to the knee

Varus stress

75

Can occur in excessive knee twisting or hyperextension

Cruciate ligament tears

76

Analysis of cruciate ligament damage is done by the

Drawer test

77

How do we test the
1.) ACL
2.) PCL

1.) Anterior drawer test
2.) Posterior drawer test

78

How do we test the
1.) MCL
2.) LCL

1.) Applied valgus stress
2.) Applied varus stress

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