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Flashcards in Lecture Notes Deck (100):
1

Parasympathetic innervation for the head comes from CNs

III, VII, and IX

2

Different from the other cranial nerves because it develops as part of the CNS

-The ONLY CN affected by MS

Optic Nerve (CNII)

3

Depression in macula lutea with densest concentration of photoreceptor cells

Fovea

4

Functions to maintain the structure of the eye

Vitreous body

5

Changing vision from a far object to a near object

Accommodation reflex

6

On medial wall of the orbit separating the orbit and nasal cavity

Ethmoid air cells

7

The lateral side of the orbit is the

Infratemporal fossa

8

Located between the cornea and eyelid or between bulbar and palpebral conjunctiva

Conjunctival sac

9

Covers the cornea

Bulbar conjunctiva

10

Provides sensory innervation to the lateral face outside of the orbit

Lacrimal nerve

11

Which branch of the internal carotid anastamoses with the external carotid?

-Blood flow naturally goes from internal to external

Opthalmic artery

12

Runs along the top of the masseter

Parotid duct

13

Important muscle for keeping mouth pursed

-innervated by CN VII

Orbicularis Oris

14

Parasympathetic ganglion in the infratemporal fossa that is associated with innervation to the parotid gland

Otic ganglion

15

Sensory unipolar ganglion in the MCF

-No synapses occur here

Trigeminal ganglion

16

Lie just within the ITF superficial to the medial pterygoid but deep to the mandible

Lingual nerve and inferior alveolar nerve

17

The post ganglionic fibers of the two ganglion of the ITF, the otic and submandibular ganglion. travel on the

Lingual nerve and auriculotemporal nerve respectively (branches of V3)

18

Cell bodies for the special sensory fibers of chorda tympany are located in the

Geniculate ganglion

19

Lays on top of the thyrohyoid

Hypoglossal nerve

20

Lays below thyrohyoid

Superior laryngeal nerve

21

The parotid gland is innervated by

CN IX

22

The boundary between the MCF and PCF

-Houses the internal auditory meatus

Petrous portion of temporal bone

23

The upper wall of the middle ear is the

Tegman tympani

24

Injury affecting the inner ear, CN II, or the CNS can all produce a

Sensorineural hearing loss

25

Connects the middle ear to the nasopharynx

Pharyngotympanic (auditory or Eustacian) Tube

26

The muscle that opens the Eustacian tube is the same muscle that elevates the soft palate, which is the

Levator palati

27

Sits on top of pharyngotympanic tube and connects to malleus to increase tension on tympanic membrane when contracted

-decreases severity of sounds

Tensor tympani

28

Sits on back wall of middle ear and tendon attaches to the stapes

-More effective at reducing loudness

Stapedius

29

The cornea is innervated by

CN VII

30

Fold of mucosa overlying the palatoglossal muscle that separates the oral cavity and oropharynx

Palatoglossal arch

31

Always secreting to make sure mouth is moist

-protects teeth

Submandibular and sublingual glands

32

Contracts and secretes saliva into the mouth when we are eating and need more saliva

Parotid gland

33

The root of the tongue has slight taste innervation from

CN X

34

Important landmark for intibation to pull the epiglottis off the larynx

Epiglottic Valleculae

35

Passes medial to the hypoglossus

Lingual artery

36

Passes lateral to (on top of) the hypoglossus

Hypoglossal nerve

37

If we have a lesion in the left branch of CN X that affects the left levator palati muscle, which way will the uvula hang?

To the right (I.E. towards the functioning muscle)

38

Stretches the soft palate, helping to seal off the nasopharynx

Tensor palati

39

Located in the oropharynx between the palatoglossal and palatopharyngeal arches

Palatine tonsils

40

A tonsilectomy of the palatine tonsils can cause nerve damage in the

Glossopharyngeal nerve (CN IX)

41

The gap between the middle and inferior constrictor (gap 3) has what stretching across the front?

Thyrohyoid membrane

42

Two grooves on the lateral sides of the voice box that divert food and fluid to the sides of the larynx so they don't enter the larynx

Piriform recesses

43

How do we seal the nasopharynx?

Lift, elevate, and tense the soft palate

44

Males tend to have a 90 degree thyroid cartilage angle which means a

Longer vocal cord and deeper voice

45

Females tend to have a 120 degree thyroid cartilage angle, which means a

Shorter vocal cord and higher pitch voice

46

For normal respiration, we want the vocal cords to have a

Small gap

47

For forced respiration, what do we do to the vocal cords?

Abduct them

48

The vocal cords are thinner and longer for

High notes

49

The vocal cords are thicker and shorter for

Low notes

50

The superior and middle turbinates are part of the

Ethmoid bone

51

Is its own bone

-Largest of the Turbinates

Inferior turbinate

52

What is the function of the respiratory mucosa?

Filter humidify and warm air

53

Cycle of mucous membrane congestion and decongestion every 2-3 hours

Nasal cycle

54

Acts to congest via vasodilation and increased mucous production

Parasympathetic stimulus

55

Acts to decongest via vasoconstriction

Sympathetic stimulus

56

Provides general sensation from the nasal cavity

Nasociliary nerve

57

What are the three types of innervation for the nasal cavity?

1.) Olfactory Nerve (CN I)
2.) Nasociliary nerve
3.) Maxillary nerve

58

The blood supply to the nasal cavity is from which three arteries?

1.) Nasociliary branch of opthalmic
2.) Facial artery
3.) Sphenopalatine artery

59

Anterior nose bleeds are more common and are from the

-Can stop bleeding by putting something between upper lip and gum

Facial artery

60

Located posterior to the ethmoidal air cells and nasal cavity

Sphenoidal paranasal sinus

61

Result of sinus pressure due to a virus

Acute sinusitus

62

Sinus problems due to a deviated septum or polyp

Chronic sinusitus

63

Surgery to remove tumor on pituitary by going through the nose and sphenoid sinus into the sella turcica

Transphenoidal Hypophesectomy

64

Sits in the sella turcica

-Optic chiasm sits right above it

Pituitary

65

Each of the 4 parasympathetic ganglion in the head and neck are attached to a

Branch of CN V

66

Pass through sphenopalatine foramen to innervate the nasal cavity

Nasopalatine nerves

67

Nerves of the pterygopalatine fossa carry sympathetic innervation from the

Face, Nasal cavity, and Palate

68

Nerves of the pterygopalatine fossa carry preganglionic and postganglionic parasympathetic innervation for

Lacrimation and mucous production

69

Is analogous to the chorda tympani in the nerve fiber types it carries

Greater petrosal nerve

70

Passes UNDER the Trigeminal ganglion and ABOVE the foramen lacerum and internal carotid artery

Greater petrosal nerve

71

Functions to produce mucus and tears

Pterygopalatine ganglion

72

What is the path of parasympathetic innervation to palte mucosa?

Greater petrosal --> Pterygopalatine ganglion --> Palatine nerves --> Palate

73

What is the path of sympathetic innervation to nasal and oral cavities?

Superior cervical ganglion --> Deep petrosal nerve --> Pass through pterygopalatine ganglion --> Nasal and oral cavities

74

Forms anterior cranial connective tissues like tendons, stroma, and the dentin of the teeth

Neural Crest

75

Runs on the dorsal end of the embryo

Neural Tube

76

Have a core mesoderm-mesenchym that includes mesoderm & neural crest cells

Pharyngeal arches

77

Which is longer, the left recurrent laryngeal nerve or the right recurrent laryngeal nerve?

Left recurrent laryngeal nerve

78

Formed by the 3rd and 4th pharyngeal arches and forms the posterior 1/3 of the tongue

Hypopharyngeal eminence

79

The face develops from which 5 bumps?

-1 frontonasal eminence (which forms 2 medial and 2 lateral nasal eminences)
-2 maxillary eminences
-2 mandibular eminences

80

Come together and fuse to form the midline of the nose and the philitrum of upper lip

Medial nasal prominences

81

The primary palate is formed from the

Frontonasal prominence

82

The secondary palate is formed from the

Palatine shelves of maxillary prominences

83

Forms as the proliferating cells of the maxillary prominences push the medial nasal prominences together in the midline to form the primary palate

Intermaxillary segment

84

Improper formation of medial nasal prominence

Synopthalmia (cyclops) w/ probiscusis (nose above eye)

85

Due to improper fusion of medial nasal prominences

-primary palate doesn't fuse anterior to incisive foramen

Median cleft

86

Failure of the maxillary prominence to fuse with the lateral nasal prominence

-Nasolacrimal duct is open to the exterior

Oblique facial cleft

87

Incomplete fusion between the maxillary prominance and medial nasal prominence

-Incomplete fusion between primary and secondary palates

Anterior cleft deformity

-cleft lip or upper jaw

88

Incomplete fusion of palatine shelves

-cleft secondary palate

Posterior cleft deformity

89

Remains attached to the brain

Posterior pituitary

90

Forms olfactory epithelium for smell

Nasal placodes

91

Forms associated eye structures for vision

Lense placode

92

Forms cochlea for hearing and vestibular aparatus for balance

Otic placode

93

Forms distal end of trigeminal gnaglion

Trigeminal placode

94

Forms distal end of ganglion for CNs VII, IX, and X

Epibranchial placodes

95

Proximal ganglion for CNs V, VII, IX, and X form from

Neural crest

96

The 1st pharyngeal pouch forms the

Pharyngotympanic tube

97

The 2nd pharyngeal pouch forms the

Palatine tonsils

98

The 3rd pharyngeal pouch forms the

Inferior parathyroid glands and thymus

99

The 4th pharyngeal pouch forms the

Superior parathyroid glands and parafollicular cells

100

Forms from endodermal envagination from the foramen cecum (thyroid diverticulum)

Thyroid gland

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