Terminology and Joint/Muscle Action Flashcards Preview

Structure and Function Test 1 > Terminology and Joint/Muscle Action > Flashcards

Flashcards in Terminology and Joint/Muscle Action Deck (94):
1

What is the major sign of a proximal nerve injury?

-Patient can't curl first two fingers and thumb when they make fist

Hand of Benediction

2

Term that includes the name of the discoverer

Eponym

3

Where two tubes come together

Anastosome

4

What is the eponym for Cerebral Arterial Circle?

Circle of Willis

5

What is the eponym for the rectouterine pouch?

Pouch of Douglas

6

What is the eponym for a pancreaticoduodenectomy?

Whipple Procedure

7

Any plane parallel to the sagittal (median) plane

Parasagittal plane

8

Will not cure you, but will hopefully increase your quality of life

Palliative care

9

Nearer to the trunk or point of origin

Proximal

10

Further from the trunk or point of origin

Distal

11

When talking about limbs, we don't use superior and inferior, we use

Proximal and Distal

12

When we are referring to blood vessels or describing surgery or dissection, we use

Superficial and Deep

13

A bending movement that decreases the angle between a segment and it's proximal segment

Flexion

14

A straightening movement that increases the angle between a segment and it's proximal segment

Extension

15

Prefixes meaning no, or without

A-, An-, De

16

Prefixes meaning against, or opposite

Anti-, Contra-

17

Prefix meaning two

Bi-

18

Prefixes meaning out, or on outside

Ecto-, Ex-, Exo-, Extra-

19

Prefixes meaning within

Endo-, Intra-, Intro-

20

Prefix meaning upon

Epi-

21

Prefix meaning Half

Hemi-

22

Shorten (pull), they do not lengthen (push)

Muscles

23

A muscle cell is stimulated by a

Motor Neuron

24

Muscle cell contraction is referred to as being

All or none

25

A muscle cell is called a

Myocyte

26

A muscle functions by

Contracting (i.e. shortening)

27

A motor neuron and all muscle cells innervated byit

Motor Unit

28

The motor neuron is also referred to as being all or none, i.e., either

The neuron depolarizes or it doesn't

29

Muscle cells contract to their full capacity when the

Neuron depolarizes

30

There are multiple motor units in a muscle cell, but each muscle cell is innervated by only one

Motor neuron

31

If muscle cells function "all or none" and motor units function "all or none," then how do we achieve gradation of function?

Recruitment of additional motor units

32

In the sagittal plane, movement in the anterior direction is

Flexion

33

If we want to double the force that the biceps are exerting, than we must double the

Motor unit count

34

Muscles designed for large gross movements have a large number of muscle cells per

Motor unit (>500)

35

Muscles designed for large gross movements are not good for

-ex: muscles of shoulder and hip girdles

Fine control

36

Muscles designed for small fine movements have a small number of muscle cells per

Motor unit (less than 20)

37

Muscles designed for small fine movements are good for

-ex: Intrinsic hand muscles and extraoccular muscles

Fine control

38

What are three things that muscle contraction can do?

1.) Cause movement (concentric contraction)
2.) Prevent movement (isometric contraction)
3.) Control movement (eccentric contraction)

39

The muscle shortens during

Concentric contraction

40

The muscle length remains constant during

-often resisting gravity

Isometric contraction

41

The muscle lengthens during

-often resisting gravity

Eccentric contraction

42

Muscles are named by

1.) Shape
2.) Attachments
3.) Function
4.) Combinations

43

What are the three types of joints?

1.) Fibrous joint
2.) Cartilaginous joint
3.) Synovial joint

44

Very limited or no movement

-Joint where fibrous connective tissue connects bones

Fibrous Joints

45

Somewhat more mobile than fibrous joints

-cartilage is interposed between the two bones and the bones are connected by fibrous tissue

Cartilaginous joints

46

The most movable joint

-contains a synovial cavity

Synovial Joint

47

Surrounds the joint in a synovial joint

Fibrous joint capsule

48

Covers the inner surface of fibrous capsule and the intraarticular portion of the bone, but not the cartilage

Synovial membrane

49

Covers the articular surfaces of a synovial joint

Cartilage (usually hyaline)

50

Secretes synovial fluid into the synovial cavity

Synovial membrane

51

A viscous fluid, high in hyaluronic acid, which serves as a lubricant and carries nutrients and oxygen to the cartilage

Synovial fluid

52

What are two examples of fibrous joints?

Sutures of skull and teeth

53

What are two examples of cartilaginous joints?

Symphis pubis and invertebral disk

54

What are some examples of synovial joints?

Glenohumeral (shoulder) joint, hip joint, and elbow joint

55

Errosion of the articular cartilage in a synovial joint is characteristic of

Osteoarthritis (degenerative arthritis)

56

Inflammation of the synovium and surrounding connective tissue is characteristic of

Rheumoid arthritis (inflammatory arthritis)

57

The functional unit in muscle is the

Motor unit

58

Individual skeletal fibers are incapable of

Partial contraction

59

Muscles for fine movement have smaller numbers of muscle fibers per

Motor unit

60

Because skeletal muscle fibers fatigue very quickly, the maintenance of a sustained muscle contraction is accomplished by

Asynchronus "firing" of motor units

61

A muscle can cause motion at a joint only if it

Crosses the joint

62

In all cases, muscles have attachments on different bones with at least one joint between those

Bones

63

The origin and insertion of a muscle is never located on the

Same bone

64

Muscle action at a joint is generally the result of

Rotational force (torque)

65

What are the three types of movement that occur around different axes?

1.) Flexion and extension
2.) Abduction and adduction
3.) Internal and external rotation

66

How are the axes for flexion/extension, abduction/adduction, and internal/external rotation oriented relative to eachother?

All are perpendicular to one another

67

What is the torque (τ) of a muscle?

τ= F d Sinθ

68

May cause more than one movement because they may have vectors that cross more than one axis

Muscles

69

Can flex, adduct, and internally rotate at the shoulder because it has vectors that cross all three axes

Perctoralis major

70

Causes flexion at the shoulder and flexion at the elbow because it has vectors that cross the flexion/extension axes for each joint

Biceps Brachii

71

Sometimes, instead of a rotational movement, a muscle will cause a

Translational movement

72

At a joint, a muscle that causes extension can also resist

Flexion caused by gravity

73

This "anti-gravity" function of muscles is particularly important in the "postural" muscles that allow us to maintain the

Erect posture

74

Can extend the vertebral column and are very active while flexing the vertebral column

-very active while the vertebral column is being flexed as well

Erector Spinae Muscles

75

Resist the force of gravity which tries to further flex the spine

Erector Spinae muscles

76

When squatting, the quadriceps femoris muscles in the front of the thigh, which can cause extension of the knee, are used to prevent

Flexion of the knee due to gravity

77

Important tests when a patient has a weakness in a particular movement that may be caused by more than one muscle

Differential muscle tests

78

An effective supinator when the elbow is 90 degrees but not when it is at 180 degrees

Biceps Brachii

79

A muscle that assists another muscle in its primary function

Synergist

80

Can perform the same function as another muscle, or can stabilize another joint in order to allow the primary muscle to perform its function

Synergist

81

Synergists for the digital flexors because they stabilize the wrist and prevent the digital flexors from flexing the wrist instead of flexing the digits

Wrist extensors

82

A muscle that performs a function that is the opposite of the funtion of the primary muscle

Antagonist

83

To fully and accurately describe the action of a muscle, one should state the

1.) Action of a muscle
2.) Which body part is moved
3.) Which joint the movement occurs at

84

The fixed end of muscle is called the

Origin

85

The movable end of muscle is called the

Insertion

86

Movement in the sagittal plane about the transverse axis

Flexion/extension

87

Movement in the transverse plan about the longitudinal axis

Medial/lateral rotation

88

Movement in the coronal plane about an anteroposterior axis

Adduction/Abduction

89

Loose connective tissue comprised of irregularly woven collagen fibers interspersed w/ varying numbers of fat cells

Superficial Fascia

90

It functions to attach the dermis to the deep fascia covering muscles, as padding material to fill out the body’s contours and to conserve heat.

Superficial Fascia

91

Dense connective tissue comprised of irregularly woven, tightly packed collagen fibers

Deep Fascia

92

Deep Fascia that surrounds the skeletal muscle

Epimysium

93

Deep Fascia that surrounds nerves

Epineruim

94

Deep Fascia that surrounds bones

Periosteum

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