Development of the Head and Neck pt. 2 Flashcards Preview

Structure and Function Test 1 > Development of the Head and Neck pt. 2 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Development of the Head and Neck pt. 2 Deck (48):
1

Incomplete fusion or formation of the medial nasal prominences results in

Midline facial defects

-median cleft lip or synopthalmia with proboscis

2

Synopthalmia with proboscis is associated with

Holoprosencephaly

3

Incomplete fusion between the intermaxillary segment and the maxillary prominences results in

Anterior cleft deformities

4

Anterior cleft deformities are deformities anterior to the incisive foramen such as

Cleft lip or cleft upper jaw

5

The most common congenital malformation of the head and neck and occurs in 1/700 births

Cleft lip

6

Forms when a wedge of ectoderm furrows at the junction between the maxillary and lateral nasal prominences

Nasolacrimal groove

7

The nasolacrimal groove forms the

Nasolacrimal duct and lacrimal sac

8

Incomplete fusion between the maxillary and lateral nasal prominence along the nasolacrimal groove results in

-Nasolacrimal duct is exposed to surface

Oblique facial cleft (nasolacrimal duct is exposed to surface)

9

Form the connective tissues, cartilages, and bones associated with the cheeks, lateral upper lip, and secondary palate (posterior to incisive foramen)

Maxillary prominences of the 1st pharyngeal arch

10

The secondary palate is posterior to the

Incisive foramen

11

The secondary palate forms from midline fusion of the maxillary prominences' outgrowths called

Palatine shelves

12

Initially, the palatine shelves are vertically oriented around the

Protruding tongue

13

As the oral cavity grows and the tongue flattens, the palatine shelves become horizontally-oriented and approximate to fuse in the midline and form the

Secondary palate

14

The midline nasal septum (from the frontal nasal prominence) fuses with the superior midline surface of the

Palatine shelves

15

Incomplete midline fusion of the maxillary prominences' palatine shelves, sometimes due to micrognathia and failure of tongue to flatten, results in

Posterior cleft palate

16

Cleft palate without associated cleft lip occurs in

1/1500 births

17

Form the mandible and malleus-incus ear ossicles

Mandibular prominences of the first pharyngeal arch

18

Incomplete midline fusion of the mandibular prominences results in

Cleft chin

19

The external surfaces of the pharyngeal arches is covered by

Surface ectoderm

20

The surface ectoderm lines recesses between the pharyngeal arches as 4 bilateral pairs of

Pharyngeal clefts/grooves

21

Forms the epithelial lining of the external auditory meatus and the epithelial lining of the external surface of the tympanic membrane (ear drum)

The 1st pharyngeal cleft

22

Clefts 2-4 are overgrown by the 2nd pharyngeal arch and form a

Temporary cervical sinus

23

Remnants of the cervical sinus of clefts 2-4 may form

-located laterally along anterior border of sternocleidomastoid

Lateral cervical cysts

24

Not part of the structures derived from the pharyngeal region, but part of it forms from the ectoderm of the stomodeum

Pituitary gland (hypophysis)

25

Arises as an ectodermal diverticulum from the stomodeum (referred to as Rathke's pouch) which detaches

Glandular anterior lobe (adenohypophysis) of pituitary

26

Forms as a ventral neuroectoderm envagination from the hypothalamus

Nerual posterior lobe (neurohypohpysis) of the pituitary

27

Neuron cell bodies located in hypothalamic nuclei produce hormones that are carried through axons in the pituitary stalk to reach the

Posterior lobe for release

28

The external ear epithelium is derived from ectoderm of the

First pharyngeal cleft

29

The middle ear is derived from mesoderm-mesenchyme of the

1st and 2nd pharyngeal arches

30

A thickening of surface ectoderm that invaginates to form the cochlea and vestibular apparatus of the inner ear

Otic placode

31

The retina, pigmented epithelia, optic nerve, isis smooth muscles, and viterous humor are all derived from

Neuroectoderm of the neural tube

32

The lens, conjunctival and corneal epithelia, eyelids, and lacrimal apparatus are derived from surface ectoderm that forms a

Lens placode

33

The remaining ocular structures form from

Mesenchyme

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The same endoderm that lines the pharynx of the foregut lines the internal surface of the

Pharyngeal arches and the 4 bilateral pairs of pharyngeal pouches recessed between the arches

35

The first pouch forms the

Tubotympanic recess

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The proximal portion of the tubotympanic recess develops into the

Auditory (Eustachin) tube

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The distal portion of the tubotympanic recess develops into the

Tympanic/middle ear cavity

38

Develops into the epithelial-lined crypts of the palatine tonsil

2nd Pouch

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Forms the epithelial glandular cells of the inferior parathyroid glands and epithelial reticular cells of the thymus

3rd pouch

40

The thymus is infuiltrated by

Lymphocytes

41

Forms epithelial glandular cells of the superior parathyroid gland

4th pouch

42

The 4th pouch houses migrated neural crest cells known as the

Ultimobranchial body

43

Neural crest-derived ultimobranchial cells of the fourth pouch become the calcitonin-producing

Parafollicular cells of the thyroid

44

Neural crest cells give rise to the supportive stroma surrounding ectoderm or endoderm-derived glandular cells of the

Thymus, pituitary, parathyroid, and salivary glands

45

Also forms from the endoderm of the pharynx

Thyroid gland

46

An evagination of endoderm located in the ventral midline of the floor of the pharynx near the posterior/root of the tongue

The thyroid diverticulum (foramen cecum)

47

The thyroid diverticulum extends and migrates caudally in the midline and temporarily maintains its attachment to the root of the tongue during its migration through the

Thyroglossal duct

48

The thyroglossal ducts disintegrates, but its persistence results in a midline mass that moves with the tongue protrusion known as the

Thyroglossal duct Cyst

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