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Flashcards in Histology Practical Deck (79):
1

Formation of new cartilage from existing perichondrium

Appositional growth

2

Growth within the cartilage mass

-chondrocytes that are still capable of cell division form isogenous groups (cell nest)

Interstitial growth

3

Found in the nose, larynx, respiratory track, costal ribs, and articular cartilage of synovial joints

Hyaline cartilage

4

Appears more opaque and yellow than hyaline cartilage

Elastic Cartilage

5

Has larger and more abundant chondrocytes and less matrix than yaline cartilage

Elastic cartilage

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Which types of cartilage have NO perichondrium?

Fibrocartilage and Articular Hyaline cartilage

7

Has cells in lacunae alligned in rows

Fibrocartilage

8

Unlike other cartilage types, fibrocartilage matrix is made up of a dense network of

Collagen I (acidophilic matrix)

9

Cartilage is nourished via

Diffusion

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Bone is nourished via

Blood vessels

11

In an H and E stain, cartilage stains

Basophilic (blue)

12

In an H and E stain, bone stains

Eosinophilic (red)

13

What are the three connective tissue layers surrounding peripheral nerves?

Endoneurium, perineurium, epineurium

14

Surrounds a single axon and its Schwann cell covering

Endoneurium

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What type of collagen does the endoneurium contain?

Type III

16

1-3 cell layers thick of dense CT which are contractile and contian actin

Perineurium

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Surrounds individual axon bundles of fascicles to form a semipermeable barrier

Perineurium

18

Surrounds many axon bundles and fills the spaces between them

Epineurium

19

Consists of dense irregular CT and contains blood vessels that supply the nerves

Epineurium

20

In unmeylinated axons in the PNS, Schwann cells encase the axons but do not

Wrap around them to form a myelin sheeth

21

Cytoplasm of the Schwann cell can be seen around the

Individual unmyleinated axon in the PNS

22

Unmyelinated axons in the CNS are not surrounded by

Oligodendrocytes

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The only way to tell the location of a myelinated axon is to look at the

Unmyelinated ones

24

What are some differences between PNS fibers and Smooth muscle?

PNA has uneven distribution of various types of nuclei and very wavy and frothy

-blood vessels usually not seen

25

A cluster of nerve cells located in the peripheral nervous system

Ganglia

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Sensory neurons are classified as

Pseudounipolar

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Have large spherical neurons and a centrally located nucleus

Sensory ganglia

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Have nucleus at one side of the neuron, few satellite cells at periphery of neurons and few nerve fibers around the nucleus

Autonomic (sypathetic) Ganglion

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Have many satellite cells surrounding the cell body

Sensory ganglia

30

Increases surface area of dendrite

Dendrite spine

31

Striated with peripheral nuclei and surrounded by a basal lamina and satellite cells

Skeletal muscle

32

The orderly arrangement of actin and myosin in a sarcomere are responsible for the

Banding pattern observed under EM and LM

33

Visible ONLY at the EM level

Myofilaments

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Made up of many myofilaments and surrounded by a sarcoplasmic reticulum

Myofibril

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The cross section of the myofibril is visible at the LM level and it appears as

Dots

36

The longitudinal section of a myofilament is visible only at the

EM level

37

Made up of many myofibrils and surrounded by an endomysium

Myofiber

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Made up of many myofibers and surrounded by a perimysium

Fascicle

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Made up of many fascicles and surrounded by epimysium

Muscle

40

Surrounds each myofibers

Endomysium

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Surrounds each fascicle

Perimysium

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Surrounds many fascicles

Epimysium

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Myofibrils are made up of many myofilaments and surrounded by the

Sarcoplasmic reticulum

44

Made up of actin (thin filaments) and myosin (thick filaments) arranged in an orderly manner

Myofilaments

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A sarcomere, the contractile unit of muscle, extends from

Z-disc to Z-disc

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Does not change shape during contractin

A band

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Extends from the Z line to the M line and is closely associated with myosin

Titin

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Generates passive tension through elastic tension when the sarcomere is stretched

Titin

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Titin prevents

Overstretching

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Extends from the Z band along the length of the actin filament

Nebulin

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Acts as a template for the regulation of filament length

Nebulin

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Intermediate filament which encircles the Z disk of each sarcomere and extends from one myofibril to the other and is anchored to the sarcolemma

Desmin

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Facilitates the coordinated contraction of individual myofibrils by holding adjacent myofibrils together forming a supportive latticework and linking them to the sarcolemma

Desmin

54

Surrounded by a cell membrane (sarcolemma) and has peripheral nuclei

Muscle cell

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Each muscle cell is surrounded by a thin layer of CT called the

Epimysium

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Thicker in skeletal muscle than in peripheral nerves

Perineurium at myotendon junction

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Located at every A-I junction

T-tubule

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Provides rapid transmission of the surface membrane excitation

T-tubule

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SER expansions that release and store Ca2+ via a voltage sensitive Ca2+ channel

Terminal Cisterna

60

The T-tubule and 2 terminal cisterna

Triad

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In a myoneural junction, each nerve branch innervates a single

Muscle fiber

62

Striated, short, branched fibers with 1 or 2 centrally located nuclei

Cardiac Muscle

63

CT between cells of cardiac muscle is greater than in

-not as organized as skeletal muscle

Skeletal muscle

64

Cardiac muscle cells have T-tubules at

-EXCEPT when there is an intercalated disc

Z-lines

65

Intercalated discs are specific cell to cell boundaries in cardiac muscle and contain

1.) Fasciae adherentes (transverse component)
2.) Desmosomes (Lateral component)
3.) Gap Junctions (Lateral component)

66

In a cross section, cardiac muscle cells will exhibit a

Variety of shapes

67

Fascia adherens (transverse component) is made up of

Actin filaments

68

Spot desmosomes are made up of

Intermediate filaments

69

Modified myofibers found in clusters beneath the endocardium lining the two sides of the interventricular septum

Purkinje fibers

70

Large cells with pale cytoplasm due to glycogen content

-contain intercalated discs

Purkinje fibers

71

Function to conduct impulses to the ventricular myocytes

Purkinje fibers

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Spindle shaped tapering cell with one centrally located nuclei and indistinguishable borders

Smooth muscle

73

Located at the ends of nucleus in smoothmuscle

Perinuclear organelles

74

Smooth muscles control involuntarily controlled contractions as sheets or bundles or cells due to

Gap Junctions

75

Invaginations of the plasma membrane in smooth mucle are called

Caveolae

76

Smooth muscle has no T-tubules and an underdeveloped SR. It contains cytoplasmic dense bodies that act as

Z discs (myofilament attachment sites)

77

Smooth muscle cells are surrounded by basallamina except at

Gap junctions

78

Found in sheets with very little CT between cells

Smooth muscle

79

Nerve bundle between 2 muscle layers

Myenteric Plexus

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