Infratemporal Fossa Pt. 1 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Infratemporal Fossa Pt. 1 Deck (87):
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An irregularly-shaped space in the head that is surrounded by bone and soft tissues

Infratemporal fossa

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The infratemporal fossa contains structures that are important for

Mastication, taste, and salivation

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The infratemporal fossa is inferior to the

Zygomatic arch

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The infratemporal fossa is deep/medial to the

Ramus of the mandible

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The infratemporal fossa is lateral to the

Sphenoids lateral pterygoid plate

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The infratemporal fossa is posterior to the

Maxilla

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One of the regions where anesthesia may be administered by dentists for nerve blocks during work on mandibular teeth

Infratemporal fossa

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Superior to the zygomatic arch and communicates with the infratemporal fossa through a gap between the zygomatic arch and cranial bones

Temporal fossa

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The floor of the temporal fossa is formed by the

Sphenoid (gretaer wing), temporal (squamous portion), frontal, and parietal bones

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The sutures that unite these bones forms the

H-shaped pterion

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Fully occupies the temporal fossa and extends into the infratemporal fossa

-one of the four muscles of mastication

Fan-shaped temporalis muscle

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Covers the temporalis and attaches to the zygomatic arch to provide resistance to the masseter that pulls down on the zygomatic arch

Tough facia

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Located intracranially and medially to the infratemporal fossa

Middle cranial fossa

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The Middle cranial fossa communicates with the infratemporal fossa through the

Foramen ovale and foramen spinosum

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Openings in the intervening greater wing of the sphenoid bone that transmit neurovasculature

Foramen ovale and Foramen spinosum

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The largest of three major paired salivary glands

-located in the posteriolateral part of the face

Parotid gland

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Wedged within a region bounded by the zygomatic
arch (superiorly), external acoustic meatus-mastoid process-sternocleidomastoid (posteriorly), mandible ramus and masseter (anteromedially)

Parotid gland

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Course through the parotid region

External carotid artery and retromandibular vein

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Proceeds anteriorly and horizontally from the gland and turns medially at the masseters anterior border to pierce the buccinator

Parotid duct

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The parotid duct pierces the buccinator and enters the oral cavity through an orifice located near the

2nd maxillary molar tooth

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Course through the parotid gland on their way to supply the muscles of facial expression

Somatic motor branches of CN VII

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The parotid gland and some lymph nodes are enclosed in a tough, unyielding fascia capsule known as the parotid sheath, which forms from the

Inversting layer of deep cervical fascia

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Mumps virus may result in parotid gland inflammation known as

Paroditis

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Swelling within the parotid sheath can cause pain during chewing and in the auricle and external aucoustic meatus that is relayed by

1.) Auriculotemporal nerve of CN V3, and the great auricular nerves (C2-C3)

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Somatic (branchial) motor fibers of the facial nerve (CN VII), which course through the parotid gland, may
be injured from parotiditis or surgery and result in

Facial nerve (Bell's) palsy

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Facial nerve (Bel's) palsy results in weakness or paralysis of

Facial muscles on ipsilateral side

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Eversion of inferior eyelid, dry eye, tearing, impaired pronunciation of B, M, P, or W, and inability to whistle are symptoms of

CN VII (Bell's) Palsy

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In Bell's palsy, the skin of the affected side may show

Irritation

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Anterior and medial to the infratemporal fossa, with separation by muscles and mucosa

Oral cavity

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Deep and medial to the infratemporal fossa

Pterygopalatine fossa

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Allows passage of neurovascular structures between the infratemporal fossa and pterygopalatine fossa

Pterygomaxillary fissure

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The parotid, temporal, and infratemporal regions include the

Tempromandibular joint (TMJ)

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What produces the movement of the TMJ?

Muscles of mastication

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What are the four muscles of mastication?

Temporalis, masseter, lateral pterygoid, and medial pterygoid

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Which of the four muscles of mastication are located in the infratemporal fossa?

Inferior part of temporalis and the lateral and medial pterygoid

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The superior part of the temporalis is located in the

Temporal fossa

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The masseter is located

Lateral to the ramus of the mandible

-outisde of infratemporal fossa

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The muscles of mastication, tensor muscles, and some suprahyoid muscles are all derivatives of the first pharyngeal arch and are innervated by branches of the

Mandibular nerve (CN V3) which is located in the infratemporal fossa

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At the superior end of the jaw, immediately anterior to the ear/external acoustic meatus

Tempromandibular joint (TMJ)

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In the TMJ, the temporal's madibular fossa receives the head of the

Condylar/condyloid process of the mandible

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The mandibular fossa is bound anteriorly by the

Articular tubercle

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The mandibular fossa is bound posteriorly by the

Postglenoid tubercle

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articular disc of the TMJ interposed between bones to create two separate joint cavities/spaces

Fibrocartilaginous meniscus

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Surrounds the TMJ and attaches to the temporal bone, neck of mandible's condylar process, and the peripheral edges of the articular disc

Fibrous joint capsule

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The attachment of the edges of the articular disc
to the internal aspects of the capsule separates the articular surfaces and creates two separate (superior and inferior) joint cavities that are lined by

Synovial membranes

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Several types of mandibular movements are possible at the TMJ because it has

2 joint cavities

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What type of movements occur in the superior joint cavity>

Gliding movements (translation)

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The gliding movements of the mandible in the superior joint cavity allow themandible to

1.) Protrude/protract anteriorly
2.) Retrude/retract posteriorly

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These gliding movements occur as the articular disc and condylar head glide together along the mandibular fossa up to the

Articular tubercle

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The prime mover in protrusion

Lateral pterygoid

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Prime mover in retrusion

Horizontal fibers of the temporalis

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What are the two types of movements that occur in the inferior joint cavity?

1.) Hinge movements (elevation/depression)
2.) Rotation/spin along a vertical axis (lateral movements in grinding)

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When the mouth closes, what happens to the mandible?

Retracts and elevates

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When in a deep sleep, there is tonic contraction of retractor muscles and relaxation of elevator muscles causing

Mouth to open slightly

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For the mouth to open wide, the mandible is

Protruded and depressed

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The prime mover in depression of the mandible

Gravity

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Help depress the mandible against resistance

Platysma, suprahyoids, infrahyoids, and lateral pterygoid

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When one condyle of the mandable spins/rotates around a vertical axis and the contralateral condyle translates forward, we get a small degree of

Lateral movement of the mandible

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The lateral movements for grinding and chewing occure through the action of the

Masseter and temporalis of the same side and the pterygoids of the opposite side

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When protraction of the head and disc occurs unilaterally, the contralateral, retracted head rotates (pivots) on the inferior surface of the articular disc, permitting simple

Side-to-side grinding

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Sometimes during yawning or taking a large bite, excessive contraction of the lateral pterygoid may
cause the disc with heads of the mandible to cross the anterior tubercle of the TMJ, causing

TMJ dislocation (can't close mouth)

-lock-jaw

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What resists posterior dislocation of the TMJ?

Postglenoid tubercle and ligaments

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Blows to the chin often result ina fracture of the

Neck of themandible

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Fracture of the mandibular condyle results in a unilateral lateral pterygoid function in which there is deviation of the jaw to the

Affected side

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The terminal branches of the external carotid artery are the

Superficial temporal and maxillary arteries

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The temporalis muscle is supplied by the

Superficial temporal artery and some muscular branches of the maxillary artery

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Originates within the parotid gland, near the neck of the mandible

Maxillary artery

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The maxillary artery enters the infratemporal fossa either lateral to or within the

Lateral pterygoid muscle

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Branches of the maxillary artery supply the

Dura matter of cranial cavity, nasal cavity, oral cavity, and all teeth

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The maxillary artery is divided into which three parts based on its relation to the lateral pterygoid muscle in the infratemporal fossa?

1.) Mandibular part
2.) Pterygoid part
3.) Pterygopalatine part

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Deep to the condyle of the mandible

-branches into middle meningeal artery and inferior alveolar artery

Mandibular (1st) part of maxillary artery

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Exits the infratemporal fossa by ascending vertically via the foramen spinosum to reach the middle cranial fossa of the cranial cavity to supply the dura and bone

Meningeal artery

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Passes between the two roots of the auriculotemporal nerve in the infratemporal fossa

Meningeal artery

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Travels with the inferior alveolar nerve of CN V3, descends to exit the infratemporal fossa via the mandibular foramen

Inferior Alveolar Artery

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The inferior alveolar artery eventually becomes the

Mental Artery (supplies the chin)

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Located lateral to or within the lateral pterygoid muscle

Pterygoid (2nd) part of maxillary artery

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Gives off numerous branches to the muscles of mastication

Pterygoid (2nd) part of maxillary artery

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Passes through pterygomaxillary fissue to exit from the infratemporal fossa and enter into the pterygopalatine fossa

Pterygopalatine (3rd) part of maxillary artery

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The pterygopalatine part of the maxillary artery branches into the

1.) Posterior superior alveolar artery
2.) Infraorbital artery
3.) Sphenopalatine artery

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Supplies maxillary teeth

Posterior superior alveolar artery

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Supplies part of the cheek

Infraorbital artery

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Supplies the nasal cavity

Sphenopalatine artery

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Lies between the temporalis and lateral pterygoid muscle in the infratemporal fossa

-Venous sequivalent of the maxillary artery

Pterygoid venous plexus

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The pterygoid venous plexus communicates anteriorly with the

Facial vein via Deep facial vein

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The ptrerygoid venous plexus communicates superiorly with the

Cavernous sinus (via emissary veins)

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The pterygoid venous plexus also has an indirect communication with the

Inferior opthalmic vein

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The pterygoid venous plexus also communicates
with the external jugular vein via the

Maxillary and retromandibular veins

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