Development of the Head and Neck pt. 1 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Development of the Head and Neck pt. 1 Deck (70):
1

Manyt head and neck structures form from the mesoderm-mesenchyme found in and near five bilateral pairs of

Pharyngeal (branchial) Arches

2

These 5 pharyngeal arches appear during the

Fourth week of prenatal development

3

The five pharyngeal arches appear during the 4th week of prenatal development and are numbered

1, 2, 3, 4, and 6 (the 5th quickly disappears)

4

Precursor cells in pharyngeal arches and in regions rostral to pharyngeal arches are derived from

Mesoderm and Neural crest

5

Each pharyngeal arch is a bar of mesoderm-mesenchyme that is separated by

Folds of surface ectoderm (pharyngeal clefts/grooves) and folds of endoderm (pharyngeal pouches)

6

Contains its own specific nerve, artery, muscle, and connective tissure

Ech pharyngeal arch

7

Cranial nerves extend from the developing brainstem into

Pharyngeal arches

8

Conversely, pharyngeal arch mesoderm and neural crest gives rise to

Aortic arches, skeletal muscles, and connective tissues

9

Pharyngeal arch 1 is comprised of which two prominences?

Maxillary prominence and mandibular prominence

10

What is the cranial nerve that is associated with the 1st pharyngeal arch?

Trigeminal nerve

11

What is the aortic arch of the 1st pharyngeal arch?

I (maxillary)

12

From the mesoderm, the mandibular prominence of the 1st pharyngeal arch has which skeletal muscles?

Mastication muscles, tensors, anterior digastric, mylohyoid

13

The maxilla, zygomatic bone, squamous temporal bone, palatine, and volmer are the connective tissues (derived from neural crest) associated with the

Maxillary prominence of 1st pharyngeal arch

14

What is the nerual crest connective tissue associated with the mandibular prominance of the 1st pharyngeal arch?

Mandible, malleus, and incus

15

What is the cranial nerve of the second pharyngeal arch?

Facial nerve (VII)

16

What is the aortic arch of the 2nd pharyngeal arch?

II (stapedial)

17

What are the mesodermal skeletal muscles of the 2nd pharyngeal arch?

Facial expression muscles, stapedius, posterior digastric, and stylohyoid

18

The stapes, styloid process, lesser hgorn of hyoid bone, and upper body are neural crest connective tissues of the

2nd pharyngeal arch

19

What is the cranial nerve of the 3rd pharyngeal arch?

Glossopharyngeal nerve (IX)

20

What is the aortic arch of the 3rd pharyngeal arch?

III (part of internal carotid)

21

What is the mesodermal skeletal muscle of the 3rd pharyngeal arch?

Stylopharyngeus

22

What are the neural crest derived connective tissues of the 3rd pharyngeal arch?

Greater hgorn of hyoid and lower body

23

What is the cranial nerve of the 4th pharyngeal arch?

X (Superior lingual of vagus)

24

What is the aortic arch of the 4th pharyngeal arch?

IV (parts of right subclavian and aortic arch)

25

The soft palate muscles (except tensor) and the pharyngeal muscles (except stylopharyngeus and cricothyroid) are the mesodermal skeletal muscles of the

4th pharyngeal arch

26

What is the neural crest derived connective tissue of the 4th pharyngeal arch?

Laryngeal cartilage

27

What is the cranial nerve of the 6th pharyngeal arch?

X (recurrent laryngeal nerve of vagus)

28

What is the aortic arch of the 6th pharyngeal arch?

VI (Ductus arteriosis and pulmonary)

29

What are the mesodermal skeletal muscles of the 6th pharyngeal arch?

Intrinsic laryngeal (except cricothyroid) and esophageal muscles

30

What are the neural crest derived connective tissues of the 6th pharyngeal arch?

Laryngeal cartilage

31

The stomodeum (primitive mouth) and pharynx meet at the oropharyngeal/buccopharyngeal membrane where the

Ectoderm meets endoderm without intervenin mesoderm

32

The oropharyngeal membrane disintegrates, which allows for a continuouslumen between the

1.) Ectoderm lined?

2.) Endoderm lined?

1.) Stomodeum (primitive mouth) 2.) Foregut

33

Derived from multiple pharyngeal arches and extends from the pharynx into the stomodeum

Tongue

34

The epithelium covering the anterior 2/3 of the tongue and the surrounding oral cavity are derived from

Ectoderm

35

The glandular epithelium of the parotid gland is derived from

Ectoderm

36

The epithelium covering the pharyngeal part fo the tongue (posterior 1/3) and surrounding oropharynx are derived from?

Endoderm

37

The glandular epithelium of the submandibular and sublingual glands is derived from

Endoderm

38

However, the supportive glandular stroma is derived from

Mesoderm-mesenchyme of associated arches

39

For the posterior 1/3 of the tongue, the general sensory and taste information is conveyed through the

Glossopharyngeal nerve (IX)

40

It should be noted that some taste information in the posterior 1/3 of the tongue is also provided by the

Vagus nerve

41

The somatic MOTOR innervation to all skeletal muscles of the tongue (except the palatoglossus) is conveyed through the

Hypoglossal Nerve (XII)

42

The Palatoglossus is innervated by the

Vagus nerve (X)

43

Proliferates in the midline of the ventral wall of the pharynx to form the connective tissue that contains sensory nerves of the anterior 2/3 and posterior 1/3 of the tongue

Tongue pharyngeal arch mesenchyme

44

Tongue skeletal muscle forms from migrating myoblasts of

Occipital somitomeres

45

Forms from the growth of the two lateral lingual swellings and a median lingual sweeling (tuberculum impar) in the 1st pharyngeal arch

The anterior 2/3 of the tongue

46

Make up most of this growth and meet in the midline of the tongue as the median lingual sulcus

Lateral lingual swellings

47

The lateral lingual swellings make up most of the growth of the anterior 2/3 of the tongue and meet in the midline as the

Median lingual sulcus

48

Failure of the lateral lingual swellings to completely fuse in the midline results in

Bifid tongue

49

Forms from the hypopharyngeal eminence in the 3rd and 4rth pharyngeal arches

Posterior 1/3 of the tongue

50

Defines the boundary between the anterior and posterior tongue

Terminal sulcus

51

The location of midline ventral endodermal envagination to form the thyroid gland

-at the root of the tongue

Foramen cecum (Thyroid diverticulum)

52

Myoblasts from occipital somitomeres migrate to the developing tongue mesenchyme and drag the

 

-for somatic innervation

Hypoglossal nerve

53

The face and palate formation begins anteriorly as 5 mesenchymal prominences (bumps) at about

4-5 weeks

54

These mesenchymal prominences (bumps) surround the stomodeum and are covered by

Surface ectoderm

55

Derived from the mesenchyme rostral to the pharyngeal arches and lies ventral to the forebrain and cranial stomodeum

The single midline Frontonasal prominence

56

The single midline frontonasal prominence lies

1.) Ventral to the

2.) Cranial to the

1.) forebrain

2.) stomodeum

57

The pair of maxillary prominences of the first pharyngeal arch lie LATERAL to the

Stomodeum

58

The pair of mandibular prominences of the first pharyngeal arch lie CAUDAL to the

Stomodeum

59

These prominences contain connective tissue-forming mesenchymal cells covered by

Epidermis-forming surface ectoderm

60

As these prominences proliferate and migrate towards the midline, they form the

Face and palate

61

Deformities of the lip and palate are described as anterior and/or posterior to the incisive foramen and may be

Unilateral or bilateral

62

Bilateral surface ectoderm thickenings that develop on the frontonasal prominence

Nasal placodes

63

Lateral and medial prominences surround each nasal placode and grow forward while the placodes remain stationary. This gives the impression of "invaginations" to form

Nasal cavities

64

This nasal placode ectoderm will form the epithelium lining of nasal cavities, including the olfactory epithelium that is responsible for the sense of

Smell

65

More specifically, surface-ectoderm nasal placodes form "pits" that become

Nasal cavities lined by nasal epithelium

66

Frontonasal prominence mesenchyme develop as "rises" that will form

Midline structures (nose, philtrum of upper lip, primary palate)

67

The "rises" surrounding the "pits" are called

Medial and lateral nasal prominences

68

Fusion of themedial nasal prominences creates the intermaxillary segment that develops into the

Primary palate (anterior to incisive foramen)

69

Proliferation of the adjacent maxillary prominences "pushes" the midline fusion of the medial nasal prominences to form the

Intermaxillary segment

70

The frontonasal prominence also gives rise to

Forehead and nasal septum

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